生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 399-408.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002055

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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基于功能与空间格局的区域生态系统保育策略

郭中伟, 甘雅玲   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所农业虫鼠害综合防治国家重点实验室,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2002-01-04 修回日期:2002-09-30 出版日期:2002-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 甘雅玲

A strategy for ecosystem conservation based on function and spatial pattern

GUO Zhong-Wei , GAN Ya-Ling   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents , Institute of Zoology ,Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100080
  • Received:2002-01-04 Revised:2002-09-30 Online:2002-11-20
  • Contact: GAN Ya-Ling

本研究以位于长江流域的湖北省兴山县为研究区域,着重讨论了基于功能与空间格局的生态系统保育策略,即以改善生态系统功能为评价指标,以调整生态因子的空间格局为手段的生态系统保育策略。根据该县的地理位置,我们以生态系统功能中的水源涵养为森林生态系统保育的评价指标。利用基于地理信息系统的空间数据库,分析了研究区域内90类植被-土壤-坡度复合体的水涵养功能,综合评价了整个研究区域中生态系统的水涵养能力。利用生态系统中水涵养能力的空间异质性和变化-位置效应在生态因子改变中的作用,我们提出了“基于空间格局的森林扩展”的策略。将该策略应用于兴山县的生态系统保育,以期达到保育森林与改善水涵养能力的双重目的。本研究为保育、管理和持续利用长江流域和其他遭遇同样问题的区域的生态系统提供了有价值的信息。

Using Xingshan County of Hubei Province as a case study, we discussed a strategy for ecosystem conservation based on functions and spatial pattern. The strategy uses the improvement of ecosystem functions as appreciation indices, and the regulation of the spatial pattern of ecological factors as an approach. Here, the ecosystem function for water retention was considered as an appreciation index, due to this county's locatation in the watershed of the Yangtze River. The county was divided into 90 types of vegetation soil slope complexes. A GIS embodied spatial database was used to explore the relationships between the capacity of water retention by a complex and the types of vegetation, soil and slope. We estimated statistically the capacity of water retention of every complex, and evaluated integrally the situation of water retention in the county. The variation location effect describes the phenomenon that the identical variation of a factor may produce different effects on the overall situation, when this variation occurs in different spatial locations. This effect highlights the effect of the spatial patterns of biological and physical factors as well as their combinations to produce ecosystem functions. According to this effect, we can discuss spatially the quantitative variations of ecological factors and the effects of these variations on the overall ecosystem. By this means “quantity” and “space” are integrated. In this study, according to this effect, we changed the situation of water retention in the watershed by regulating the combination of vegetation, soil and slope. The strategy of “spatial pattern based forestland extension” is based solely upon the variation location effect. This study shows that greater benefit of water retention in the watershed can be obtained from the extension of forestland by using this strategy. Likewise, applying this strategy in the establishment of a protective forest system in the Yangtze River basin, the situation of water retention in this basin can also be greatly improved, and people can derive more benefit from water and soil conservation. The variation location effect is of universal significance and useful for ecosystem restoration, conservation and management. The terrestrial ecosystems in many regions are undergoing great changes, and, as consequences, ecosystem functions will be weakened. The conservation and restoration of these ecosystems will be critical problems people must face. Our research work may be an essential step to the restoration of the ecosystem functionality in these regions.

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