生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 393-398.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002054

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

农业耕作活动对西藏越冬黑颈鹤食性及食物可获得性的影响

Mary Anne Bishop, 李凤山   

  1. 1 ( International Crane Foundation , PO Box 447 , Baraboo , Wisconsin 5391320447 , USA)
    2 ( Prince William Sound Science Center , PO Box 705 , Cordova , Alaska 99574 , USA)
  • 收稿日期:2002-02-05 修回日期:2002-07-04 出版日期:2002-11-20
  • 通讯作者: Mary Anne Bishop

Effects of farming practices in Tibet on wintering Black necked Crane ( Grus nigricollis ) diet and food availability

Mary Anne Bishop, Li FengShan   

  1. 1 ( International Crane Foundation , PO Box 447 , Baraboo , Wisconsin 5391320447 , USA)
    2 ( Prince William Sound Science Center , PO Box 705 , Cordova , Alaska 99574 , USA)
  • Received:2002-02-05 Revised:2002-07-04 Online:2002-11-20
  • Contact: Mary Anne Bishop

于1996年1月对在西藏中南部越冬黑颈鹤的食性和谷物性食物的可获得性进行了研究。青稞(Hordeum vulgare)、春小麦(Triticum spp.)、冬小麦(Triticum spp.)是该地区的3种主要作物。对黑颈鹤粪便的分析表明,越冬黑颈鹤取食大量的农作物,尤其是小麦散落谷粒,而冬小麦苗仅占鹤类食物组成的很小一部分。秋收后的翻耕、放牧等农业活动影响地面上作物残物(种子、叶、秆或根)及谷粒残物(裸粒、穗、稃)的数量,农地翻耕掩埋了大部分的作物残物。未翻耕青稞地与小麦地上的作物残物覆盖比值相似。谷粒残物的密度在未翻耕的小麦地上最大。为了最大限度地增加黑颈鹤的冬季食物资源,减少人为活动对黑颈鹤的干扰,我们建议:在秋收后不要翻耕河流两侧的青稞地和小麦地;在冬小麦种植地区,冬小麦应仅仅种植在主要公路两侧。

We studied the availability of cereal grains as food resources for win tering Black-necked Cranes in south-central Tibet Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China during January 1996. Barley, spring wheat, and winter wheat were the three major crops. Fecal samples revealed that Black necked cranes fed extensively on waste cereal grain, especially wheat. Winter wheat seedlings comprised only a minor portion of the crane diet. Post-harvest farming practices including plowing and livestock grazing influenced surface residue cover (seeds, leaves, stems, or roots) and waste cereal grain (kernels, spikelets, or chaffy bracts) available for cranes. Plowing buried most crop residue. In unplowed fields, proportion of waste grain residue cover was similar in harvested barley and harvested wheat fields. Harvested wheat produced the greatest density of surface waste grain. We recommend providing unplowed, harvested wheat and harvested barley fields near rivers and cultivating winter wheat closer to primary roads in order to maximize grain availability and minimize potential disturbance to wintering Black necked Cranes.

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