生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 369-375.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002051

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖区重引入麋鹿的可行性研究

杨道德, 蒋志刚, 曹铁如, 文仕知, 赵克金, 桂小杰, 徐永新   

  1. 1 (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
    2 (中南林学院野生动植物保护研究所,  株洲 412006)
    3 (湖南省林业调查规划设计院,  长沙 410007)
    4 (湖南省林业厅野生动植物保护处,  长沙 410007)
  • 收稿日期:2002-03-04 修回日期:2002-10-01 出版日期:2002-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚

Feasibility of reintroducing Pè re David′s deer (Elaphurus davidianus) to the Dongting Lake region, Hunan Province

YANG Dao-De, JIANG Zhi-Gang*, CAO Tie-Ru, WEN Shi-Zhi, ZHAO Ke-Jin, GUI Xia-Jie, XU Yong-Xin   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Science , Beijing 100080
    2 Institute of Wildlife Conservation , Central South Forestry University , Zhuzhou 412006
    3 Hunan Forestry Inspection & Design Institute , Changsha 410007
    4 Wildlife Protection Bureau , Hunan Forestry Department , Changsha 410007
  • Received:2002-03-04 Revised:2002-10-01 Online:2002-11-20
  • Contact: JIANG ZhiGang

洞庭湖湖区湿地是麋鹿(Elaphurus davidianus)的古栖息地。为了使麋鹿重返洞庭湖, 2000~2001年,我们考察了湖北石首天鹅洲麋鹿自然保护区、北京麋鹿苑和江苏大丰麋鹿自然保护区的麋鹿种群,勘察了洞庭湖区岳阳市、常德市和益阳市的10处洲滩,发现湖南汉寿县桔林垸、华容县集成垸与湖北天鹅洲麋鹿自然保护区的自然条件相似,是洞庭湖区麋鹿重引入的适宜地点。于是,我们对桔林垸和集成垸的自然条件和动植物资源等进行了调查,并对麋鹿喜食植物的生物量进行了抽样调查,确定了环境容纳量。集成垸的植被有3个植被型组,有维管植物75科189属264种,可用于放养麋鹿的面积为2000 hm2,麋鹿夏季喜食植物有50种,其鲜重21158.4吨, 麋鹿环境容纳量为1000余头。桔林垸在1998年退田还湖后,天然植被恢复很快,其植被类型有3个植被型组,有维管植物75科189属250余种,具有麋鹿夏季喜食的植物52种,其鲜重达18859.0吨,可供940余头麋鹿生存。其适合放养麋鹿面积为1703.1 hm2,环境容纳量在850头麋鹿以上。无论从气候还是从食物、环境容纳量来看,桔林垸和集成垸均适合重新引入麋鹿。本文讨论了再引入麋鹿的人类协助性措施:保证生存空间、防治疾病、生境改造和种群与生境监测等,以期最终在洞庭湖湿地恢复麋鹿自然种群。

关键词: 细菌鉴定, 细菌种群, 分离频率, 拮抗细菌, 水稻纹枯病

The wetlands around the Dongting Lake were inhabited by Père David′s deer before its extinction in the wild. In preparation to restore a wild Père David′s deer populations in the Dongting Lake region, we inspected the Père David′s deer populations in the Tianezhou Reserve, Beijing Milu Park and Dafeng Milu Nature Reserve. We studied the available wetlands in the Yueyang Municipality, Changde Municipality and Yiyang Municipality, and selected Julinyuan of Hanshou County, Changde Municipality and Jichengyuan of the Huarong County, Yueyang Municipality as a potential reintroduction site for Père David′s deer. We studied the vegetations and sampled above ground biomass of plant in the two sites. We found the natural environments in Julinyuan and Jichengyuan similar to that of the Tianezhou Reserve. There are three Vegetation Type Groups and vascular plant of 75 families, 189 genera and 264 species in Jichengyuan. The habitat available for reintroduction of Père David′s deer in Jichengyuan is 2000 hectare, which can provide the reintroduced deer with 21158.4 tons of fresh plants, enough to support 1000 Père David′s deers. The natural vegetation rapidly recovered after the lands were abandoned and designated for wetland restoration. There are also three Vegetation Type Groups and vascular plants of 75 families, 189 genera and more than 200 species in Julinyuan. The habitat available for reintroduction of Père David′s deer in Julinyuan is 1703.1 hect are, which can provide reintroduced deer with 18 859.0 tons of fresh plants, enough to support 850 Père David′s deers. Judged by the climate, food resources and environmental carrying capacity,  Julinyuan and Jichengyuan are both suitable for reintroduction of Père David′s deer. We also discuss the human assisted survival strategies for Père David′s deer, such as guarantee living space, diseases prevention, habitat restoration, and population and habitat monitoring.

Key words: bacterial identification, bacterial species, isolation frequency, antagonistic bacteria, sheath blight of rice

[1] 谢关林, Mew Twng Wah. (2002) 浙江晚稻稻种非致病细菌多样性初步研究. 生物多样性, 10(3): 311-317.
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