生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (4): 359-368.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002050

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国濒危鱼类、两栖爬行类和哺乳类的地理分布格局与优先保护区域——基于《中国濒危动物红皮书》的分析

陈阳, 陈安平, 方精云   

  1. (北京大学城市与环境学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,  北京 100871)
  • 收稿日期:2001-12-29 修回日期:2002-07-04 出版日期:2002-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 方精云

Geographical distribution patterns of endangered fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals and their hotspots in China: a study based on “China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals”

CHEN Yang, CHEN AnPing, FANG JingYun   

  1. Department of Urban and Envi ronmental Sciences , Center of Ecological Research and Education ,
  • Received:2001-12-29 Revised:2002-07-04 Online:2002-11-20
  • Contact: FANG JingYun

《中国濒危动物红皮书》依据我国动物所面临的濒危现状,对我国濒危动物的濒危等级划分、种群现状、致危因素和保护措施等进行了描述说明,首批收录了535种濒危动物。本文以《中国濒危动物红皮书》中所收录的352种濒危脊椎动物(不含鸟类)(以下简记为“濒危动物”)为研究对象,整理统计了现有濒危物种的分布资料,在GIS支持下,对中国濒危动物的地理分布进行了研究。结果表明,中国濒危动物物种呈明显的集聚分布,最密集的地区是横断山区、海南岛、西双版纳和云贵高原;而在华北平原、内蒙古东部、黄土高原和东北平原等地区出现大片空白区。影响濒危动物分布的主要因素有热量和水分条件、地形条件等自然条件以及历史开发、人为破坏等人文条件。山地因地形屏障作用而保留了较多的古老物种,其较为复杂的环境因子也有益于物种的生存,因而物种丰富度较高。大多数动物对于水分和热量的依赖性较强,因此水热条件对于其分布的限制作用十分明显。人为破坏较为严重的地区,濒危物种稀少;污染、开荒等引起的环境问题对于现存动物的威胁很大。运用Dobson排除算法得到云南勐腊县等9个县市分布有168种濒危动物,占全国总数(海生种类及仅分布于台湾和香港的特有种除外)的51.5%,而其土地面积之和仅为全国陆地总面积的0.9%。而云南勐腊县等94个县市就分布有中国所有的濒危动物。这些地区是我国生物多样性保护应该优先考虑的地方。

The “China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals” lists 535   
endangered species in China according to their   
conservation status,as well as describing their degree of threat, population size, threatening factors and approaches to conservation. Supported by GIS, a literature based analysis was carried out on the geographical distribution patterns of the endangered vertebrates in China (birds were excluded, but for simplification we refer to “endangered vertebrates” hereafter). The endangered vertebrates are distributed unevenly. The densest areas are located in Hengduan Mountains,Hainan Island,Xishuangbanna and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. In contrast, the Northern China Plain, the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia Plateau, the Loess Plateau and the Northeast Plain lack endangered animals.   
Topographical factor is key to the distributions of the endangered vertebrate species. Mountains are often habitats for many ancient species. Many species rely heavily on specific moisture and temperature conditions, which limit their distribution ranges. Human activity is another important factor that affects the present   
geographical distributions of the endangered vertebrates. Those places with a long history of human exploitation   
lack endangered vertebrates. Modern environmental problems such as pollution, and impoldering of wetlands also pose great threats to wildlife. A total of 168 endangered vertebrates, which accounts for 51.5% of all endangered vertebrates (excluding coastal species and species endemic to Taiwan and Hongkong) occur in nine counti   
es comprising only 0.9% of China's terrestrial area. All endangered vertebrates can be found in just 94 counties, as revealed by the algorithm based on the principle of complementary used by Dobson et al .(1997).

No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed