生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (2): 232-237.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002031

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

释放后的转抗病虫基因作物对土壤生物群落的影响

王洪兴, 陈欣, 唐建军, 志水胜好   

  1. 1 (浙江大学华家池校区农业生态研究所,杭州 310029)
    2 (浙江大学玉泉校区植物科学研究所,杭州 310027)
    3 Laboratory of Comparative Environmental Agronomy,University of Tsukuba,Tsukuba,Ibaraki 3058572 ,Japan
  • 收稿日期:2001-07-16 修回日期:2001-10-12 出版日期:2002-05-20

Influence of released transgenic pest and disease resistant crops on plant associated microorganisms in soil

WANG Hong-Xing, CHEN Xin *, TANG Jian-Jun, SHIMIZU Katsuyoshi   

  1. 1 Agroecology Institute,Life Science School,Zhejiang university,Hangzhou 310029
    2 Institute of Plant Science,Life Science School,Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310027
    3 Laboratory of Comparative Environmental Agronomy,University of Tsukuba,Tsukuba,Ibaraki 3058572 ,Japan
  • Received:2001-07-16 Revised:2001-10-12 Online:2002-05-20

土壤生物,尤其是土壤微生物多样性与活性的保持是农业生态系统健康稳定的基础。农业活动尤其是农作物植被类型的改变对土壤生物的群落结构和活性具有显著的影响。释放后的转基因作物作为生态系统的一种新的生物组分,被引入农田生态系统之后所引发的农田生物群落(包括土壤微生物群落)的变化及其对农业生态系统的健康与稳定产生的影响,已成为研究热点。本文对转抗虫Bt基因作物、转T4溶菌酶基因作物、转蛋白酶抑制剂I基因作物的基因产物、作物残体在土壤中的行为(如降解产物的存留形态与生物活性)及其对根际或残体周围土壤中各类生物,尤其是微生物群落结构与功能的影响进行了简要综合评述,指出基因表达产物的后效肯定是存在的且长远的,由其引发的土壤生物群落结构的变化是复杂的,因而有必要对不同类型的转基因作物释放后的生态效应做长期的跟踪研究。建议未来的研究工作应集中在以下3方面:(1)不同的转基因表达产物在环境中的迁移、结构变化、消长动态及其对生物保持毒杀性的时间;(2)不同类型转基因植物对土壤生物群落结构的影响趋势;(3)在实验室条件下,研究分离纯化的各种转基因表达产物对土壤各生物功能类群的影响。

The maintenance of biodiversity of organisms, especially microbes in the soil, plays a key role for a healthy and sustainable agroecosystem. Agricultural activities including farming systemsaffect significantly the structure and ecological functions of soil-borne plant-associated microorganisms. As a new biotic component of the ecosystem, released genetically engineered crops initiate a change in the biotic community, the health and the stability of an agricultural ecosystem. This paper focuses on the behavior of gene products released from the roots of transgenic pest and disease-resistant crops (TPDRC) and the decomposition of TPDRC residue, and their effects on various organisms in the rhizosphere and surrounding crop residues in the soil. It is concluded that gene expression products have a long-term effect and lead to complex changes. It is suggested that a long-term study on ecological impacts of various released TPDRC is necessary. The emphasis should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) behavior of various products from different transgenic plants and their biotic activity in agroecosystems; (2) influence of transgenic plants on community composition of soil borne microorganisms and (3) influence of various isolated and purified gene expression products on microorganism functional groups in container culture conditions.

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