生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (2): 189-195.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002024

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旅游对北京东灵山亚高山草甸物种多样性影响的初步研究

高贤明, 马克平, 陈灵芝, 李迪强   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所,北京 100093)2 (中国林业科学研究院,北京 100091)
  • 收稿日期:2001-09-14 修回日期:2002-03-06 出版日期:2002-05-20

The effects of tourism on species diversity of subalpine meadows in Dong

GAO Xian-Ming, MA Ke-Ping, CHEN Ling-Zhi, LI Di-Qiang   

  1. 1 Institute of Botany,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100093
    2 Chinese Forestry Academy of Science,Beijing 100091
  • Received:2001-09-14 Revised:2002-03-06 Online:2002-05-20

在1965、1983、1994和2000年4个时期调查数据的基础上,对北京东灵山区亚高山草甸物种多样性变化和生活型谱进行了对比研究,结果显示,近年来东灵山亚高山草甸的物种多样性呈下降趋势,尤其是1983~1994年的下降速度明显加快。利用重要值作为权重参数对不同时期的东灵山亚高山草甸生活型谱进行了比较,所得到的结果反映了20世纪80年代以来,伴随旅游发展而迅速增加的马匹散牧已经对亚高山草甸的群落外貌造成了严重的不良影响:群落高度降低、物种组成改变及植被盖度下降等,说明过度放牧是东灵山亚高山草甸退化的重要影响因素。根据东灵山风景区亚高山草甸目前存在的问题,我们建议当地有关部门科学地确 定东灵山风景区旅游容量,首先要严格限制风景区马匹的散牧,关闭风景区内的跑马场和牧马帐篷,并通过加强宣传、管理和景区的基本建设,充分发挥生态系统的服务功能,实现在保护生态环境的前提下实现资源的持续利用。

Data were collected in 1965, 1983, 1994 and 2000 to monitor changes in species diversity and life form spectrum of the subalpine meadow in Dongling mountainous area in the western part of Beijing municipality. The results show that diversity has been declining from 1965 to the present, and the rate of decline has become much higher since the 1980s. Use of importance values ( IV ) to describe life form spectra demonstrates that the life form spectra of the meadow communities has changed greatly since 1983, showing the side effects of the tourism on the appearances of the meadow. Specifically, height of the meadow communities became shorter, species composition changed, and coverage decreased, all in step with a continual increase in horse population that accompanied tourism development during the period from the early 1980s to the present. The results suggest that over-browsing by horses was the main cause of diversity loss and meadow ecosystem degradation. According to the problems existing in the tourist spot of Dongling mountainous area, we suggest that the local departments concerned should determine rational limits for tourism. In particular, we recommend rigidly restricting horse browsing around the meadow, shutting down the sites for horse racing and the tent for browsing horses in the spot as soon as possible, and reinforcing awareness-building programs. In general, the area should be managed for the conservation of biodiversity as well as for development, and the service functions of the ecosystem should be emphasized so as to realize the sustainable use of meadow resources in the mountainous area based on protection of the ecological environment.

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