生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (2): 143-148.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002017

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

东灵山区阎甲物种多样性研究

罗天宏, 于晓东, 周红章 *   

  1. 中国科学院动物研究所,北京 100080
  • 收稿日期:2001-11-22 修回日期:2002-04-08 出版日期:2002-05-20

Studies on species diversity of histerid beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Dongling Mountain

LUO Tian-Hong, YU Xiao-Dong, ZHOU Hong-Zhang *   

  1. Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080
  • Received:2001-11-22 Revised:2002-04-08 Online:2002-05-20

本文研究了北京东灵山区阎甲科(Coleoptera: Histeridae)物种多样性,野外设样地调查共获标本2224头,分属于6属17种。Saprinus niponicus、Onthophilus foveipennis、Margarinotus niponicusM. reichardti的个体数量均大于总数的10%,4种共占总个体数的88.22%,是本地区常见种。本研究采用4种采集方法分别统计:肉诱法捕获的种类和数量最多,共12种占总数的70.19%;杯诱法和堆草诱法都捕到8种,分别占总数的23.61%和4.81%;网筛法采到的标本仅有2种占总数的1.39%。研究优势物种Onthophilus foveipennis的季节性变化发现,该种集中分布在小龙门林区的阔叶混交林内,个体数量在5月和9月呈现2个季节峰值,其中9月达到全年最高峰。对小龙门林区内肉诱捕获的阎甲类群的物种多样性分析表明,阔叶林中的阎甲多样性指数和均匀度指数较高,混交林的丰富度和个体数量较高,针叶林的多样性指数和个体数量较低,混交林的均匀度指数较低;而相似性分析表明,空间距离是决定小龙门林区内森林生境类型间腐生性阎甲群落相似性程度的因素,生境类型自身对相似性没有显著影响。梨园岭退耕区阎甲的物种多样性指数和均匀度指数高于小龙门林区,但物种个体平均数量低于小龙门林区。以上结果表明,东灵山地区阎甲群落的分布受生境保护程度、干扰程度以及空间距离等因素的影响,保护并提高该地区的森林植被环境对提高阎甲物种多样性有重要意义。

Species diversity of histerid beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae) was investigated in Dongling Mountain, about 114 km west of Beijing, China. Using four kinds of collecting methods, we collected 2224 specimens of Histeridae belonging to 6 genera and 17 species. Of the collected species, Saprinus niponicus, Onthophilus foveipennis, Margarinotus niponicus and M.reichardti accounted for 88.22% of total collected specimens. These four species each over 10% of total specimens, could be categorized to commonly occurring species. Twelve histerid species, namely 70.19% of total specimens were captured by meat bait, 8 species (23.61%) by pitfall traps, 8 species (4.81%) by grass bait, and 2 species (1.39%) by sifter. Onthophilus foveipennis, a dominant species captured by pitfall traps, occurred usually only in mixed broad leaved forests in Xiaolongmen. Populations were high in May and September, and peaked in September. For histerid beetles from meat bait, we analyzed species diversity and similarity in eight plots representing three types of habitats in Xiaolongmen. Diversity index ( H ′) and evenness index ( J ) were higher in broad-leaved woods than in coniferous and mixed woods. Mixed woods were the highest in number of species and of individuals and lowest in evenness. Coniferous woods showed a low value of diversity and number of individuals. Analyzing the similarity coefficient ( q ) of histerid beetle communities, we found that similarity between pairs of the eight plots decreased as distance between the plots increased, independent of habitat types. We also compared species diversity between Xiaolongmen, a well-protected forest area, and Liyuanling, an area of farmlands abandoned five years ago and interspersed with small hills. We found higher values of diversity and evenness and lower values of individual number in Liyuanling. These results suggest that compositions and distributions of histerid beetles are influenced by habitat protection, disturbance and geographic distances, and that species diversity could be conserved through increasing forest coverage and decreasing human disturbance in the Dongling Mountain.

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