生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (1): 98-105.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002011

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

新西兰的负鼠——一场尚未完结的与外来入侵有袋类的较量

纪维红,Mick N. Clout   

  1. School of Biological Sciences , The University of Auckland , Private Bag 92019 , Auckland , New Zealand
  • 出版日期:2002-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 纪维红

The common brushtail possum in New Zealand—an unfinished battle with an alien

Weihong Ji, Mick N. Clout   

  1. School of Biological Sciences , The University of Auckland , Private Bag 92019 , Auckland , New Zealand
  • Online:2002-02-20
  • Contact: Weihong Ji

为发展毛皮工业,新西兰19世纪中叶从澳大利亚引入刷尾负鼠([WTBX]Trichosurus vulpecula)〖WTBZ〗,后成为新西兰一大害兽。刷尾负鼠不仅因破坏当地植被、捕食鸟蛋等而严重影响了新西兰的生物多样性,而且因其传播结核病菌对当地畜牧业造成了很大损失。新西兰每年花费巨额资金来控制这一害兽。虽然刷尾负鼠在一些孤立的岛屿和重点自然保护区已完全被消灭或得到有效的控制,但在新西兰大部分地区其分布却还在扩展,依然威胁着新西兰的生物多样性和农牧业生产。传统的控制方法包括兽夹捕杀、射杀和药物灭杀,其效果不佳的主要原因是:1) 受资金的限制;2) 小面积控制后因为种群密度减小,负鼠的生育率、存活率随之增高。加上新个体从周围迁入,种群数量迅速恢复。生物防治特别是免疫绝育法被认为是经济、人道及有效的方法。新的研究结果证明刷尾负鼠具有一雄多雌的繁殖方式,而且在雌兽被绝育后,种群中雄兽与雌兽之比率反而增高。因此雌兽绝育可能不会降低雌雄负鼠之间的接触频率。这些研究结果表明免疫绝育控制刷尾负鼠是很有前景的。

Brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula ) were introduced into New Zealand from Australia in the mid 1800′s to establish a fur industry. They became a major invasive pest damaging native biodiversity by browsing and predation, and harming the farm industry by acting as reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. Management of possums includes eradication from some offshore islands and control by trapping, shooting and poisoning on the mainland. Although successfully eradicated from some islands and greatly reduced in abundance in some areas with high conservation value, possum distribution on the mainland has continued to expand. They are still at very high density in some areas and continue to cause biodiversity loss in this country. The efficiency of conventional control methods is affected by limited funding and rapid population recovery caused by re colonisation, higher reproduction rate and survival rate of possums in response to reduced density. Biological control, especially immunocontraception, is now being investigated as a cheaper and more effective option. Recent studies indicate that the polygynous mating system and some responses of male possums to female sterilisation would help the success of a potential virus vectored immunocontraception method.

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