生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (4): 373-381.doi: 10.17520/biods.2001055

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

都江堰地区三种壳斗科植物的种子库及其影响因素研究

肖治术, 王玉山, 张知彬   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2001-02-21 修回日期:2001-09-26 出版日期:2001-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 张知彬

Seed bank and the factors influencing it for three Fagaceae species in Dujiangyan Region, Sichuan

XIAO Zhi-Shu, WANG Yu-Shan, ZHANG Zhi-Bin   

  1. Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100080
  • Received:2001-02-21 Revised:2001-09-26 Online:2001-11-20
  • Contact: ZHANG ZhiBin

于2000年9月~12月,在都江堰地区对原生林和次生林中3种优势壳斗科(Fagaceae)植物的种子雨和土壤种子库进行了研究,并提出基于种子雨和土壤种子库测定的种子虫蛀率、种子存活率、脊椎动物捕食率和种子发霉率的估计方法。结果表明:①种子雨持续时间较长,3种壳斗科植物种子雨的高峰期在原生林和次生林中略有差异;② 3种壳斗科植物的种子产量很低,种子雨散落的平均密度不大。在原生林,栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis)、枹树(Q. serrata)和栲树(Castanopsis fargesii)种子下落的平均密度分别为2.3±3.85个/m2,6.5±17.43个/m2和1.9±5.21个/m2;而在次生林则分别为2.4±3.47个/m2,6.5±13.55个/m2和0.3±1.35个/m2;③土壤种子库中,栓皮栎在原生林中没有存留完好的种子,而在次生林的落叶层中存留有少量完好的种子(0.15±0.37个/m2); 枹树在原生林和次生林中都存留有少量完好的种子(分别为0.20±0.70个/m2和0.10±0.31个/m2)和少量萌发种子(分别为0.50±1.82个/m2和0.20±0.89个/m2);但在土壤中未发现有栲树的种子。绝大部分的种子存留在落叶层,而存留在0~2 cm和2~10 cm 土层中的种子极少;④定量测定了发霉、虫蛀和脊椎动物捕食对2种壳斗科植物种子命运的影响,发现脊椎动物捕食是影响种子库的主要因子;虫蛀率虽增加种子的发霉率,但同时也减少脊椎动物捕食率;种子较大的栓皮栎种子的存活率低于种子较小的枹树种子的存活率

Fagaceae is one of the most important families in subt ropical evergreen broad-leaved forest sin the Yangtse River Valley. However , studies on its natural regeneration are lacking. In this paper ,the seed rain , soil seed bank and factors influencing seed survival of three Fagaceae species , Quercus variabilis , Q. serrata and Castanopsis fargesii , were studied in Dujiangyan Region of the upper Yangt se River Valley , China. A method for estimating the proportion of insect-damaged seeds , surviving seeds , predated seeds and decayed seeds , was developed. Result s showed that : 1) the seed rain of three Fagaceae species lasted from the end of September to the beginning of December in the year 2000. The peaks of seed rain were slightly different in primary forest and in secondary forest . 2) The acorn crops of three Fagaceae species were all very small , and the mean density of seed rain were very low. In primary forest , the mean acorn density of Q. variabilis , Q. serrata and C. fargesii was 2.3 ±3. 85/ m2 , 6.5 ±17.43/ m2 and 1.9 ±5.21/ m2 ,respectively ; while in secondary forest , the mean density of the three species was 2.4±3.47/ m2 , 6.5 ±13.55/ m2 and 0.3 ±1.35/ m2 . 3) At the end of the seed rain , the number of acorns or their debris were thoroughly investigated at different depths in the soil : litter layer , 0~2 cm underground and 2~10 cm underground. The investigation of soilseed bank of two Fagaceae species showed that no Q. variabilis acorns remained in primary forest , while a few acorns (0.15 ±0.37 / m2) remained only in the litter of secondary forest . A few acorns of Q. serrata remained in both primary forest and secondary forest (0.20 ±0.70/ m2 and 0.10 ±0.31/m2 , respectively) , and also a few germinated (0.50 ±1.82/ m2 and 0.20 ±0.89/ m2 , respectively) ;but no acorns of C. fargesii were found. Most acorns remained in the litter , while few acorns stayed underground ; 4) The role of decay , insect-damage , predation and removal by vertebrates in the fates of acorns of the three plant species were quantitatively measured. Vertebrate predation was the key factor ; insect-damage increased the proportion of decay but decreased predation by vertebrates. The survival of acorns of Q. variabilis was lower than that of the smaller acorns of Q. serrata.

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