生物多样性

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香港的生物多样性及其保育工作

周锦超, 刘惠宁, 侯智恒, 萧丽萍   

  1. (香港新界大埔林锦路嘉道里农场暨植物园)
  • 出版日期:2000-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 周锦超

The present status and conservation of the biodiversity in Hong Kong

Lawrence Chau, Michael Lau, Billy Hau, Gloria Siu   

  1. Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden , Lam Kam Road , Tai Po , N.T. , Hong Kong SAR , China.
  • Online:2000-02-20
  • Contact: Lawrence Chau

香港位于热带,属海洋性气候。地势崎岖多山,山地约占全港总面积的3/4。城市发展多集中在沿海平坦地带。目前香港的城市和乡镇面积约占总面积的20%,农地约占5%(当中大部份已遭荒废),余下的均为郊野地区,这包括天然林和人工林(约占14%)、灌丛(约占36%)及草地(约占17%)。由于良好的气候和地理条件,形成了众多不同的生态环境,使总面积仅1090 km2的弹丸之地孕育出种类多样的动植物,生物多样性十分丰富。香港约有2500种原生植物,包括被子植物约1900种,裸子植物7种,蕨类植物220多种及苔藓植物300多种。动物方面,已记录的野生哺乳类动物有40多种,鸟类超过459种,两栖类23种,爬行类70多种。昆虫种类繁多,其中蜻蜓目100多种,鳞翅目2200多种(蝴蝶200多种,蛾类2000多种)。有很多是国家保护物种和特有种。植物方面属国家一级保护的有1种——刺桫椤(Alsophila spinulosa);国家二级保护的有6种,如四药门花(Tetrathryrium subcordatum);国家三级保护的有8种,如穗花杉(Amentotaxus argotaenia)。此外,香港特有种有16种,例如紫萁科(Osmundaceae)的粤紫萁(Osmunda mildei)、马兜铃科(Aristolochiaceae)的香港细辛(Asarum hongkongense)和兰科(Orchidaceae)的谢氏卷瓣兰(Bulbophyllum tseanum)。动物方面有9种属国家一级保护,例如中华白海豚(Sousa chinensis);79种属国家二级保护。特有种则有卢氏小树蛙(Philautus romeri)、包氏双足蜥(Dibamus bogadeki)及多种昆虫。为了保护丰富的野生动植物及其栖息的环境,香港特别行政区政府制定了一些法例并推行了不少保护措施,例如设立了21个郊野公园和14个特别地区,占全港陆地总面积约38%。此外,还成立了2个禁区、3个海岸公园和1个海洋保护区。另一方面,政府还设立了59个“具特殊科学价值地点”,以保护及研究各种动植物、生态系统和特殊的地质地貌。香港地少人多,总人口超过600万,是世界上人口最稠密的地区之一。多年来香港这个生物宝库不断地遭受人类活动的威胁,近年来由于人口急剧上升,对土地需求迫切,不少郊野地区被开发利用,环境污染亦日益严重。此外,一些野生植物因具有药用价值、观赏价值或其他用途而遭盗伐或采集。上述种种因素已使香港野生动植物及其生境受到严重损害,一些物种更濒于灭绝,进行生物多样性的保育工作刻不容缓。因此,香港确实需要制定整体的生物多样性保护策略。有鉴于此,香港大学生态及分类学系于1996年展开了一项为期3年的香港生物多样性调查,以增加对动植物资源现况的了解,为保护香港的珍稀濒危物种和日益恶化的自然环境提出补救方案,并为制订长远的保育策略奠定基础。

关键词: Elymus, 种间杂种,

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region lies within the tropics and experiences a maritime climate.As a part of the Guangdong coastal massif , it is characterized by a hilly terrain. The highest peak is Damaoshan Mountain(957 m) and hilly areas (altitudes above 150 m) account for three quarters of the total land area. Due to the general lack of flat land , urban development is concentrated along coastal areas. The developed areas (including urban areas and rural towns) account for about 20 % of the total land area , agricultural land about 5 % (most of which is abandoned) , and the rest is countryside including native woodlands and plantations (15 %) , shrublands (36 %) and grasslands (17 %) . The favourable climate and geographical conditions bring about a large variety of ecological environments , which in turn support an exuberant variety of both plants and animals making Hong Kong , such a small place of 1090 km2 , very rich in biological diversity. There are about 2500 species of native plants , including 1900 species of angiosperms , seven species of gymnosperms , around 220 species of ferns and about 300 species of bryophytes. For wild fauna , so far about 40 species of wild mammals , more than 459 species of birds , 23 species of amphibians , around 70 species of reptiles , about 100 species of dragonflies , about 220 species of butterflies and 2000 species of moths have been recorded. As well as having a huge variety , some of these species are protected by China’s government and others are endemic. For plants , there is one species (Spiny Tree Fern , A lsophila spinulosa) listed in Category I of the State Protection L ist , three species (e.g. Tetrathryrium subcordatum) in Category II and eight species (e.g. Amentotaxus argotaenia) in Category III. Moreover , there are 16 endemic plant species in Hong Kong. Examples are Osmunda mildei (Osmundaceae) , Asarum hongkongense (Aristolochiaceae) and Bulbophyllum tseanum (Orchidaceae) . For animals , there are nine species listed in Category I of the State Protection List (e. g. the Chinese White Dolphin , Sousa chinensis) , and 79 species in Category II. Endemic animals include Romer’s Tree Frog ( Philautus romeri) , Bogadek’s Legless Lizard ( Dibamus bogadeki) and many insects. To protect the varieties of wild animals , plants and their habitats , the Hong Kong SAR Government has formulated some ordinances and launched quite a few conservation measures. For instance , there are 21 country parks and 14 special areas , covering about 38 % of the total land area of Hong Kong. There are also two special restricted zones , three marine parks , and one marine reserve. The government has also set up 59 ”Site of Special Scientific Interest”(SSSI) so as to conserve and study various species of plants and animals , ecosystem , special geology and landscapes in Hong Kong.

Key words: Elymus, interspecific hybrid, meiosis, homology, genome, homoploid, speciation

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