生物多样性 ›› 1998, Vol. 06 ›› Issue (3): 205-212.doi: 10.17520/biods.1998031

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生物多样性保护的景观规划途径

俞孔坚, 李迪华, 段铁武   

  1. (北京大学城市与环境学系,  北京 100871)
    (北京师范大学环境科学研究所,  北京 100875)
  • 收稿日期:1997-12-19 修回日期:1998-03-15 出版日期:1998-08-20

Landscape approaches in biodiversity conservation

YU Kong-Jian1), LI Di-Hua1), DUAN Tie-Wu2)   

  1. 1)  Department of Urban and Environmental Sciences , Peking University , Beijing 100871
    2)  Institute of Environmental Science , Beijing Normal University , Beijing  100875
  • Received:1997-12-19 Revised:1998-03-15 Online:1998-08-20

景观规划设计在生物多样性保护中起着决定性的作用。基于不同的保护哲学,生物多样性保护的景观规划途径主要可分为两种:一是以物种为核心的景观规划途径,另一种是以景观元素为核心和出发点的规划途径。前者首先确定物种,然后根据物种的生态特性来设计景观格局,后者则以各种尺度的景观元素作为保护对象,根据其空间位置和关系设计景观格局。多种空间战略被认为有利于生物多样性的保护,包括保护核心栖息地、建立缓冲区、构筑廊道、增加景观异质性和引入或恢复栖息地。落实这些空间战略必须首先回答选择什么和在什么地方设计上述景观元素的问题。对此,目前尚没有很好的答案。传统的生物保护战略被动地强调现存濒危物种和景观元素的保护,如果将物种运动和生态过程作为一个能动的景观控制过程来对待,我们将会有一种全新的景观规划途径。其中有三个方面的概念对这种新的景观规划途径有启发意义:即景观的空间构型对生态过程的作用,生物进化空间轨迹与景观格局设计及景观阻力与潜在的生态基础设施的设计。景观生态安全格局正是在这些方向上的一个新的探索。

Landscape planning and design play an important role in biodiversity conservation. Depending on their differences in emphasis , two kinds of landscape planning approaches to biodiversity conservation exist : the species2oriented and the landscape-element2oriented approaches. In the former , a landscape is designed based on detailed information about specific target species , whereas in the later , a landscape is designed based on the existing landscape elements and patterns. Regardless of the differences in planning approaches , five spatial tactics are widely considered to be effective in biodiversity conservation : protecting core habitats , buffering , building corridors , increasing heterogeneity , and restoring habitats. Questions , however , still remain as to what and where. It is argued that the current landscape planning approaches to biodiversity conservation have limitations in that they treat species as passive organisms to be encircled in a specific area or network , and in that only the solid landscape elements were targeted , not the contextual landscape , namely the matrix in which the solid landscape elements exist . Approaches in landscape planning might be greatly different if species are treated as initiative and competing controllers of the landscape. Three new concepts are highly appreciated for their potential application in landscape planning : the concept of spatial configuration , the concept of evolutionary dynamic lineage and the concept of landscape resistance. The approach of landscape ecological security patterns was a new attempt toward an alternative model of landscape planing in biodiversity conservation.

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