生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 523-532.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070083

所属专题: 三峡工程对生物多样性的影响

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三峡库区磷化工厂点源污染对陆生植物群落组成和物种多样性的影响

李传龙1, 2, 谢宗强1*, 赵常明1, 熊高明1, 邹莉1, 2   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 出版日期:2007-09-20

Effects of point source pollution from a phosphorus chemical factory on terrestrial plant communities in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

Chuanlong Li1, 2, Zongqiang Xie1*, Changming Zhao1, Gaoming Xiong1, Li Zou1, 2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2007-09-20

2006年4月中旬至6月下旬, 采用典型取样法, 在三峡库区某磷化工厂周围污染源区与对照区设置样方, 进行常规群落学调查, 分析点源污染对陆生植物群落种类组成以及物种多样性的影响。结果表明: (1) 所有样方中共计出现284种植物, 其中乔木35种, 灌木139种, 草本110种。仅在污染区中出现的物种数量远低于仅在对照区中出现的物种数量; (2) 可分出4种基本的群落类型: 马尾松(Pinus massoniana)林、柏木(Cupressus funepris)林、栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis)林和马尾松+栓皮栎林, 各群落特定层次的物种丰富度指数以及Pielou均匀度指数在污染区与对照区之间存在显著差异; (3)污染胁迫下, 物种在群落中的生态优势度发生了变化, 反映了群落中不同物种相互替代的过程, 这种物种的替代可为今后受损生态系统人为恢复过程中物种的筛选提供一定的理论参考; (4)对群落中主要物种更新的调查发现: 栓皮栎林对污染不敏感; 柏木林污染区与对照区幼苗数量及分布格局均有明显差异, 污染条件下群落未来演替受到严重干扰。综上所述, 我们可以看出, 在点源污染影响下, 群落的组成和结构发生了显著变化, 但这种变化对群落的长期影响仍需要进一步的深入研究。

In order to reveal the response of terrestrial plant communities to pollution in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, we selected 32 sampling sites with similar environmental factors but different distances from the pollution source, a phosphorus chemical factory. A total of 284 vascular plant species were recorded in these sites, belonging to 182 genera and 76 families, including 35 tree species, 139 shrub species and 110 herbage species. Species richness and Pielou evenness index were used to measure species diversity. Species richness in polluted area was 32–67, while in control area it was 47–82. Pielou evenness index of tree layer was 0.1161–0.8509, while those of shrub layer and herb layer were 0.1763–0.3249 and 0.0443–0.2601, respectively. The results showed that both species richness and Pielou evenness index were influenced by the point source pollution. Species importance values showed significant differences between polluted area and control area. Dominance of different species had changed, and some species even disappeared under the pressure of pollution, indicating a process of species replacement in plant communities. Such species replacement can provide a scientific basis for species selection for restoration of human-damaged ecosystem. The natural regeneration of Quercus variabilis was insensitive to pollution, while Cupressus funebris was effected seriously. Therefore, the results implied that point source pollution in the Three Gorges area had a strong negative effect on the composition and diversity of terrestrial plant communities. Further study needs to be carried out to study the long-term succession of the plant communities.

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