生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (4): 419-424.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.060330

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

紫翅猪毛菜的种子多型性及其结实格局

王宏飞, 魏岩*   

  1. (新疆农业大学林学院, 乌鲁木齐 830052)
  • 收稿日期:2007-01-04 修回日期:2007-06-15 出版日期:2007-07-20

Seed polymorphism and fruit-set patterns of Salsola affinis

Hongfei Wang, Yan Wei*   

  1. College of Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052
  • Received:2007-01-04 Revised:2007-06-15 Online:2007-07-20

紫翅猪毛菜(Salsola affinis)主要分布于新疆准噶尔荒漠, 具有很强的抗干旱和耐盐碱能力, 其种子具有多型现象。我们对紫翅猪毛菜的种子形态、萌发特性及结实格局进行了观测研究。结果表明: (1) 紫翅猪毛菜3种类型的种子在形状、大小、颜色、着生方式及包被其花被片背部是否具翅方面均有明显不同; (2) 3种类型的种子具有不同的散布特性和萌发行为: A型种子容易从母体脱落, 发达的果翅能够借助风进行远距离传播; B、C型种子成熟时紧连母体, 不易脱落。在变温下A型种子和B型种子能够快速萌发, 且B型种子比A型种子的萌发速度快; 而C型种子萌发缓慢, 最终萌发率小于10%, 表明其处于休眠状态; (3)随植株个体的增大, A型种子所占比例逐渐增多, 由0.43%增加到51.07%; B型种子所占比例逐渐减少, 由65.80%减少到18.06%; C型种子所占比例没有显著变化, 约为30–35%。紫翅猪毛菜的种子多型性以及种子输出的灵活性有利于其在荒漠异质环境中成功定居。对种子多型性及其结实格局的研究将为探讨其生态适应机制及生活史进化研究提供科学依据。

Salsola affinis, a dominant desert annual inhabiting the Junggar Basin of Xinjiang, produces three types of seeds which differ in morphology and ecological properties. To better understand how S. affinis is adapted to its desert habitat, we studied its seed morphs, germination characteristics and fruit-set patterns. Having lignified perianths with long wings, Type A seeds can easily be dispersed to a long distance by wind, whereas type B and type C seeds were tightly attached to the mother plants because of short wings or absence of wings. Seeds were germinated in incubators at three alternating temperature regimes. Both Type A and Type B seeds could germinate rapidly at three alternating temperature regimes, although Type B seeds germinated more quickly. Type C seeds germinated slowly with germination rate less than 10%, indicating that they were dormant. With the increase of the size of the individual parent plant, the ratio of Type A increased from 0.43% to 51.07%, while Type B decreased from 65.8% to 18.06%, but Type C kept steady (30–35%). The success of Salsola affinis in the desert might be partly attributed to its heterocarpy and associated plastic response to heterogeneous environmental conditions.

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