生物多样性 ›› 2006, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (1): 79-86.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.050092

• 论文 • 上一篇    

云南黄连的传统种植及其在生物多样性保护中的价值

黄骥, 龙春林*   

  1. (中国科学院昆明植物研究所, 昆明 650204)
  • 收稿日期:2005-04-21 修回日期:2005-09-25 出版日期:2006-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 龙春林

Traditional cultivation of Coptis teeta and its values in biodiversity con-servation

Ji Huang, Chunlin Long*   

  1. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204
  • Received:2005-04-21 Revised:2005-09-25 Online:2006-01-20
  • Contact: Chunlin Long

运用民族植物学原理, 采用野外面上调查、定点社区调查和文献研究相结合的方法, 调查了云南西北部高黎贡山地区傈僳族对云南黄连(Coptis teeta)的混农林种植历史和方式, 总结了他们认知、利用、管理和保护这一名贵药用植物的传统知识和经验及其与生物多样性保护的关系。结果表明: 130年前, 傈僳族为了持续利用云南黄连, 以原始宗教信仰为基础, 逐渐形成了对云南黄连种植森林的禁忌崇拜, 通过“习惯法”、“头人”调解等来规范对云南黄连的种植与管理, 形成了一套行之有效、并且具有一定科学意义的种植、抚育和采收的黄连混农林可持续利用种植系统。除非森林毁坏, 这种农地没有休耕期, 傈僳族超过50%的现金收入来源于云南黄连种植。相比之下, 当地其他几种传统的土地利用方式下的物种多样性低得多, 比如, 几乎没有乔木层, 灌木的种类和盖度较低等。草本层除作物外, 其他植物被挤到地角和田边。这种种植方法是使当地群众经济利益和生物多样性保护得到兼顾和协调发展的一个范例, 对于当地生物多样性的保护和经济植物的可持续利用起到了推动作用。

Coptis teeta is an economic medicinal plant which is well protected in Yunnan. Based on ethnobotanical theory, combined with field study, community survey, and literature study, we investigated the history of cultivation and traditional management of C. teeta by local Lisu people in the Gaoligong Mountain region, Yunnan. We studied the local people’s knowledge and experiences in cultivating and utilizing this plant and its significance for biodiversity protection. The results showed that, since 130 years ago, in order to sustain this important economic plant, Lisu people have developed a set of effective methods to cultivate, manage and harvest it, and thus have formed a harmonic agroforestry system with higher species diversity than other land-use types. In return, the cultivation of C. teeta has benefited local Lisu people, providing over 50% of their cash income. This kind of land-use provides a good example of effectively protecting ecosystems without ruining local people’s profit.

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