生物多样性 ›› 1996, Vol. 04 ›› Issue (3): 145-152.DOI: 10.17520/biods.1996026

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

滇金丝猴(Rhinopithecus bieti)现状及其保护对策研究

龙勇诚,柯瑞戈,钟泰,肖李   

  1. 1) (中国科学院昆明动物研究所,  昆明 650223)
    2) (美国加州大学戴维斯分校人类学系,  USA  CA 95616)
    3) (云南省德钦县白马雪山自然保护区管理局,  德钦 674500)
  • 收稿日期:1995-04-04 修回日期:1995-07-18 出版日期:1996-08-20 发布日期:1996-08-20

Status and conservation strategy of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey

Long Yongcheng, Craig Kirkpatrick, Zhong Tai,Xiao Li   

  1. 1) Kunming Institute of Zoology , The Chinese Academy of Sciences ,  Kunming 650223
    2)Department of Anthropology , University of California , Davis ,USA ,CA 95616
    3) Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve Station ,  Yunnan , Deqin  674500
  • Received:1995-04-04 Revised:1995-07-18 Online:1996-08-20 Published:1996-08-20

摘要:

滇金丝猴(Rhinopithecus bieti)是我国特有的珍稀濒危动物,生活在海拔3800~4300 m的原始冷杉林中,但有时也会在4300~4700 m的低矮灌丛、草甸和流石滩上活动达数小时之久,甚至能跨越近千米的无林高海拔地带,因而它们是海拔分布最高的非人灵长类。松萝是它们的主要食物,取食松萝的时间占总取食时间的91%。猴群活动范围可达近百平方公里。笔者在历时8年的野外考察中,已查明这一物种的全部现存自然种群只有13个,分布在云南的德钦、兰坪、潍西、丽江和西藏的芒康这五县境内,其现存种群数量为1000~1500只;所有现存自然种群几乎均处在相互隔离的状态,群间已不可能进行基因交流,充分表明它们已到达灭绝边缘。然而其栖息地内的商业伐木规模仍在继续扩大,周围的人口压力正在不断增加,各猴群均面临不同程度的偷猎压力。这一现状委实令人担忧。如何拯救这一“国宝”应引起我国保护学家和各级政府有关职能部门的重视。

Abstract:

The Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti), is one of the most  endangered animal species endemic to China. The monkey is definitely associated with fir forest. Most monkey groups live at elevations of 3800~4300 m, and they sometimes can go up to a few hundred meters above tree line (4700 m alt.) and cross wide alpine meadow or heath patches on top of snow mountain, so that the species is the nonhuman primate species that was found at highest elevations. Its main food is the lichen (Bryoria nepalensis), an epiphyte on fir and other alpine trees, and 91% of its feeding time is spent on the lichen. Its  home range may be over 100 km2.  After eight years' field survey, the total population of the species has been estimated to be 1000~1500 individuals spread in 13 natural groups distributed in one county in Tibet (Mangkang), and four counties in Yunnan (Deqin, Lanping, Weixi, and Lijiang). All these groups were isolated due to fragmentation of its habitat, therefore, it is impossible for the gene exchange among those groups or populations. Although it has been in the list of the first class protected animals of China for almost 20 years, its survival future is not optimistic. In fact, its habitat is being lost quickly due to the commercial logging and sharply increased human population in the area, and its population is being decreased rapidly by poachers. Further conservation action on this precious animal (including protect all the natural groups of the species) should be implemented as soon as possible. In this paper, conservation status of each of the natural groups has been presented and discussed; a detailed conservation consideration for all the natural group of the species has been proposed.