生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (2): 232-237.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06215

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

《生物多样性公约》传统知识议题的背景、进展与趋势

赵富伟1, 武建勇1, 薛达元1,2*   

  1. 1环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    2中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2012-11-12 修回日期:2012-12-26 出版日期:2013-03-20 发布日期:2013-04-02
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元

Background, progress and prospect of traditional knowledge under the Convention on Biological Diversity

Fuwei Zhao1, Jianyong Wu1, Dayuan Xue1,2*   

  1. 1Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042

    2College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2012-11-12 Revised:2012-12-26 Online:2013-03-20 Published:2013-04-02
  • Contact: Dayuan Xue

摘要:

传统知识之所以成为《生物多样性公约》等国际公约的热点议题, 主要源于其重要的研究价值、经济潜力以及特定的社会历史背景。《生物多样性公约》签署至今, 在传统知识议题方面取得了许多进展, 如: 设立专门的传统知识工作组, 为履行公约相关条款制定了工作方案和行动计划, 推动特殊制度的谈判, 达成一系列道德行为准则, 以及通过了《生物多样性公约关于获取遗传资源和公正公平分享其利用所产生惠益的名古屋议定书》。根据公约第十次和第十一次缔约方大会达成的相关决议, 习惯性可持续利用(customary sustainable use)、特殊制度(sui generis systems)、传统知识归还(repatriation)等将成为今后传统知识谈判的重点。我国需要加强生物多样性保护和知识产权等主管部门之间的协作, 协调我国在不同国际法框架中传统知识议题的谈判立场; 还需要开展习惯性可持续利用、特殊制度体系、传统知识就地或者活态保护(living protection)的研究。

Abstract:

Due to its scientific value, economic potential, and social background basis, traditional knowledge (TK) is valued of great importance under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and by other international fora. The Convention has made enormous efforts for the protection of TK relevant to biodiversity. For instance, an ad hoc working group on Article 8(j) and related provisions was established; programmes of work and action plans on the implementation of Article 8(j) and related provisions were developed and implemented; the negotiation of sui generis system of TK was promoted; and several voluntary guidelines plus the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity were adopted. According to decisions from the 10th and 11th meetings of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the CBD, customary sustainable use, sui generis systems and repatriation of traditional knowledge are recognized as the most crucial issues for further negotiation and implementation of TK. Sub-national authorities which are in charge of biodiversity and intellectual property rights should be more cooperative for integration of our national position about TK issues within different international laws. More importantly, customary sustainable use, sui generis systems and in situ or living protection of TK require further research.