生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 749-757.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019081

• 生物多样性相关传统知识专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

滇西北藏区自然圣境与传统文化驱动下的生物多样性保护

杨立新1, 2, 裴盛基1, 2, *(), 张宇1, 3   

  1. 1 中国科学院昆明植物研究所资源植物与生物技术重点实验室, 昆明 650201
    2 云南省生物多样性和传统知识研究会, 昆明 650034
    3 中国科学院东南亚生物多样性研究中心, 缅甸内比都 999091
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-15 接受日期:2019-05-20 出版日期:2019-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 裴盛基 E-mail:peishengji@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    云南省生物多样性保护专项基金(2014-2015)(Y430131261)

Action research on Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) conservation in Tibetan community in NW Yunnan

Yang Lixin1, 2, Pei Shengji1, 2, *(), Zhang Yu1, 3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Resource Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    2 Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge, Kunming 650034
    3 Southeast Asia Biodiversity Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Naypyitaw, Burma 999091
  • Received:2019-03-15 Accepted:2019-05-20 Online:2019-07-20
  • Contact: Pei Shengji E-mail:peishengji@mail.kib.ac.cn

本研究旨在将滇西北藏区传统生态文化应用于社区生物多样性保护之中, 以推动社区参与式生物多样性保护和森林生态系统的修复。应用民族植物学和民族生态学的方法, 调查了位于白马雪山国家级自然保护区及周边地区的3个藏族村寨(巴珠、柯功、追达)的自然圣境与生物多样性分布状况及其生态服务功能等, 应用SWOT分析法和社区参与式保护途径, 开展了生物多样性保护示范活动。本研究结果表明, 社区保护生物多样性的主要驱动力来源于民族传统文化, 社区生计依赖于生物多样性, 保护自然圣境是社区水平保护生物与文化多样性及社区发展的重要途径。藏族自然圣境是基于传统信仰文化并经过长期实践建立和发展起来的有利于生物多样性保护的社区保护形式, 藏民社区长期遵从和实践自然圣境对生物多样性保护做出了重要贡献。

关键词: 藏区, 自然圣境, 社区保护与示范

The Tibetan sacred nature sites (SNS) encompass culturally significant, ritually protected sites in the Baima National Nature Reserve. Animistic and Tibetan Buddhist custodians of these sites have used traditional knowledge to conserve these sites for generations. Here, we assess how the Tibetan traditional eco-conservation culture conserves biodiversity, promotes community-based conservation, and restores forest ecosystems using methods of applied ethnobotany and ethnoecology. In particular, we applied strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analyses and community participatory approaches in three Tibetan SNS: Bazhu, Kegong, and Zhuida in Baima National Nature Reserve and its surrounding area in Shangrila County of Deqin Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province.Our results show that the driving force for community conservation of biodiversity comes from the established, traditional cultures and the dependence of community livelihoods on biodiversity. We conclude that community conservation on Sacred Nature Sites is an important way to protect biological and cultural diversity, as well as livelihood development at the community level. The Tibetan community's long-term compliance with, and practice of, SNS conservation has been a significant contribution to biodiversity conservation throughout the region.

Key words: Tibetan, action research, community-based conservation

表1

藏族自然圣境(SNS)保护试点活动表"

项目内容
Project content
实施活动
Implementation of activities
社区参与人数 Number of community participatory
巴珠村
Bazhu Village
柯功村
Kegong Village
追达村
Zhuida Village
机制建设
Mechanism construction
成立SNS保护小组 Setting up SNS protection group 43 61 29
协助和加强SNS保护公约
Assisting and strengthening SNS protection convention
61 26 36
社区培训
Community training
SNS保护传统 SNS protection traditions
讲习活动、研讨会、宣传册 Workshops, seminars, brochures
109 69 43
森林防火
Forest fire prevention
烧香台修整与恢复
Dressing and restoration of incense burners
0 61 29
社区发展
Community development
松茸、药材采集活动公约
Convention on the collection of matsutake and medicinal
materials
92 73 29
示范标牌
Demonstrate the signage
建立示范牌 Demonstrating signages 131 69 13

表2

试点藏族社区自然圣境"

SNS藏名
Tibetan name
级别
Level
位置
Location
面积
Area (ha)
生态功能
Ecological function
保护状态
Protection status
巴珠村
Bazhu
Village
崩布什各
Bengbushege
区域性圣山
Regional sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
> 66.67 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
那欧祥姆
Naouxiangmu
村级圣山
Village sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
40 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
峡格祥姆
Xiagexiangmu
村级圣山
Village sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
0.4 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
夏瓦祥姆
Xiawaxiangmu
区域性圣山
Regional sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
666.67 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
崩呷拉姆
Benggalamu
村级圣山
Village sacred
mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
> 66.67 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
楠珠拉姆
Nanzhulamu
村级圣山
Village sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
40 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
楠处笑姆
Nanchuxiaomu
村级圣山
Village sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
40 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
扎卡过
Zhakaguo
村级圣山
The village sacred
mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
0.067 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
柯功村
Kegong
Village
拉很
Lahen
片区性圣山
Slice aerotaxis
sacred mountain
村寨后山
Behind the
village
1?333.33 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
贡拉
Gongla
村级圣山
Village sacred mountain
保护区核心区
Core area of the reserve
666.67 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
斜木地
Xiemudi
村级圣山
The village sacred mountain
保护区核心区
Core area of the reserve
1?333.33 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
追达村
Zhuida
Village
朵就
Duojiu
村级圣山
Village sacred mountain
保护区周边Perimeter of protected area 1?000 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
良好 Good
日泥巴乌都吉
Rinibawuduji
区域性圣山
Regional sacred mountain
保护区周边
Perimeter of protected area
2?000 生物多样性、精神依托、水源、牧场、采集地、水土保持
Biodiversity, spirit support, water, meadow, locality, soil and water conservation
较好 Better

图1

项目活动实施路径示意图"

表3

试点村社区自然圣境(SNS)生态系统服务功能物质量评估表"

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