生物多样性 ›› 2004, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (2): 280-289.doi: 10.17520/biods.2004034

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

米草属植物入侵的生态后果及管理对策

陈中义, 李博, 陈家宽*   

  1. (生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室,复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所,上海 200433)
  • 收稿日期:2003-05-20 修回日期:2004-01-09 出版日期:2004-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈家宽

Ecological consequences and management of Spartina spp. invasions in coastal ecosystems

CHEN Zhong-Yi, LI Bo, CHEN Jia-Kuan*   

  1. Ministry of Education key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Enginering,Institute of Biodiversity Science,Fudan University,Shanghai 200433
  • Received:2003-05-20 Revised:2004-01-09 Online:2004-03-20
  • Contact: CHEN Jia-Kuan

生物入侵是全球变化的重要组成部分,可能对入侵地造成严重的经济和生态后果,所以评价外来种入侵的生态后果是入侵生态学研究的核心问题之一。本文以米草属(Spartina)植物为例,综述了其对入侵地区自然环境、生物种群、群落和生态系统的影响;结合国际上对米草属入侵种的管理策略,讨论了我国米草属植物管理中的一些重要问题。

Biological invasions, a significant component of global environmental change, can result in serious economic and ecological consequences. Assessing the ecological impacts of invasive plants is one of the most important issues in the study of biological invasion ecology. This paper reviews the ecological consequences of Spartina spp. invasions in the coastal ecosystems of the world, and discusses strategies for controlling their further range expansion. The genus Spartina consists of 14 species, most of which grow in coastal areas. Half of the species of the genus have successfully invaded intertidal ecosystems in coastal areas or estuaries of the world. Because these species often form dense shoot populations under favourable conditions, they can potentially alter the physical conditions of the ecosystems they invade, and have the potential to exclude native plants by competition, which in turn influences benthic fauna, and eventually results in elimination of critical foraging habitat for migratory shorebirds. Unfortunately, arresting and reversing the invasion of Spartina spp. may become infeasible once these species have spread and become established. Therefore, immediate and aggressive actions need to be taken to prevent further degradation and loss of the natural ecological structures and functions of coastal ecosystems, caused by Spartina spp. invasions. The most effective actions are to prevent Spartina spp. from invading new habitats or eradicate populations that have been recently established.

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