生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (2): 169-176.doi: 10.17520/biods.2003023

• 论文 • 上一篇    

城市公园和郊区公园生物多样性评估的指标

陈波, 包志毅   

  1. (浙江大学园艺系,杭州 310029)
  • 收稿日期:2002-08-20 修回日期:2003-01-21 出版日期:2003-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈波

Indicators for monitoring biodiversity in urban and suburban parks

CHEN Bo, BAO Zhi-Yi   

  1. Department of Horticulture,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310029
  • Received:2002-08-20 Revised:2003-01-21 Online:2003-03-20
  • Contact: CHEN Bo

随着城市化进程的加快,城市的生物多样性不可避免地受到城市化的各种影响,城市及其郊区的生物多样性保护越来越受到人们的重视。城市公园与郊区公园中往往具有高度多样化的生境,并保存着某些自然植被片段和动物物种,那里的生物多样性较高。可见,在城市和郊区的生物多样性保护中,公园生物多样性的保护是一个非常关键的环节,而对其生物多样性的评估又是有效保护的基础。目前,我国生物多样性评估方面的研究工作多集中于物种水平,而对生境的研究较少,但实践证明,保护生境比保护物种更为重要。本文介绍了比利时学者Hermy & Cornelis在比利时西佛兰德省的Loppem市立公园的保护实践中构建的一种对城市公园和郊区公园中的生物多样性进行评估的方法。该方法从两个方面展开:生境多样性和物种多样性。在生境水平上,首先对各种生境单元进行分类,这些单元被分为面状、线状和点状要素。针对每种要素,分别计算了Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和饱和度指数。饱和度指数是实际的多样性指数与最大可能的多样性指数之比。在物种水平上,使用了物种数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和饱和度指数来评估公园中的高等植物、蝴蝶、两栖动物和饲养的鸟类等物种。这样,就获得了20个生物多样性指标,根据这些指数就可以对Loppem市立公园内的生物多样性进行评估。结合我国生物多样性评估工作的实际要求,文章最后对上述方法进行了讨论,指出该方法对我国公园的生物多样性评估工作具有借鉴意义,但在运用时各地需要结合本地的实际情况。

Urban and suburban parks are rich in habitats, plants and animals. With the rapid development of urbanization, biodiversity in cities and suburbs will decrease inevitably, so it is important to protect the biodiversity in parks. To achieve this goal, monitoring biodiversity is basic. Up to now, most studies on biodiversity conservation in China focus on species diversity, but few on habitat diversity. Actually, it has been proven that habitat conservation is more important than species conservation. Therefore, we introduce a method for the general monitoring of the biodiversity in urban and suburban parks developed by Hermy and Cornelis, two Belgian scholars. The method partitions diversity along two axes, habitat diversity and species diversity. At the habitat level, the diversity in so-called “habitat units” is measured. These units are divided into planar, linear and punctual elements. For each category they calculated a Shannon-Wiener diversity index and a saturation index. The latter is the ratio of the actual diversity index to the theoretical maximum diversity index in the region. At the species level, species richness and biodiversity indices of vascular plants, butterflies, amphibians and breeding birds were calculated. These values were compared with the total number of species in Flanders, resulting in a saturation index for each park for plants and animals. In this way, 20 biodiversity indicators were obtained. This method was applied to measure the biodiversity in the municipal park of Loppem (West Flanders, Belgium). We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method, and suggest that it should be utilized, based on specific situations.

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