生物多样性 ›› 2003, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (2): 132-140.doi: 10.17520/biods.2003018

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

独叶草构件生长及其与环境的关系

张文辉1, 2, 王延平2, 刘国彬2   

  1. 1 (天津师范大学,天津 300074)
    2 (西北农林科技大学,陕西杨陵 712100)
  • 收稿日期:2002-09-19 修回日期:2003-02-03 出版日期:2003-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘国彬

The relationship between modular growth of Kingdonia uniflora and the environment

ZHANG Wen-Hui1, 2, WANG Yan-Ping2, LIU Guo-Bin2   

  1. 1 Tianjin Normal University,Tianjin 300074
    2 Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agiculture and Forestry,yangling,Shaanxi 712100
  • Received:2002-09-19 Revised:2003-02-03 Online:2003-03-20
  • Contact: LIU Guo-Bin

为探求濒危植物独叶草(Kingdonia uniflora)种群保护的策略,通过样地调查、室内测定和统计分析,对太白山地区独叶草种群的营养构件(根、茎、叶)的生长发育过程进行了系统的研究,并对其所处群落的生境因子进行了分析。结果表明:不同生境条件下的独叶草各营养构件的生长发育规律均可用方程y=A+B1x+B2x2+B3x3表示(y为构件数量特征,A、B为常数,x为个体年龄)。生长于不同群落内的独叶草种群各营养构件生长发育水平具有显著差异(P<0.05):巴山冷杉(Abies fargesii)林下(海拔2700~2900 m)的独叶草种群,其营养构件在数量和形态发育指标上最优;生长于太白红杉(Larix potaninii var. chinensis)林下(海拔2900~3100 m) 的种群次之;生长于牛皮桦(Betula utilis)林下(海拔2500~2700 m)的种群较差。运用主成分分析(PCA)方法对影响独叶草种群构件结构的9个环境因子进行了分析,发现人为干扰、光照、气温、湿度,土壤pH值、土壤水分是影响独叶草生长发育最主要的因素;土壤腐殖质厚度、有机质含量和群落盖度也有一定影响。独叶草种群以无性繁殖为主,生存环境特殊,应以就地保护为主,对其赖以生存的牛皮桦、巴山冷杉和太白红杉群落应重点保护,减少人为干扰,不提倡引种栽培或以其他方式进行迁地保护。

Kingdonia uniflora is a perennial herb, a typical clonal plant that is an endemic and endangered plant in China. It is distributed in the middle and high mountains at altitudes of 2500-3900 m in Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces. Its open dichotomously-veined leaves, as well as other primitive characters, have attracted the interest of botanist. In order to explore the conservation strategy and counter measures to threats, the growth course of every module, including root, rhizome and leaf, of K.uniflora in Taibai Mountain were studied systematically, and the environmental factors that influence populations were analyzed. The growth patterns of modules of different K. uniflora populations had a similar tendency, which could be expressed by the equation:y=A+B1x+B2x2+B3x3,where y is modular growth parameters,xis age, and A and B are constants. The modular growth parameters (root, rhizome and leaf) of K.uniflora populations in different communities were significantly different (P< 0.05).The number and the architectural index of root, rhizome and leaf developmental growth of K.uniflora populations in Abies fargesii communities at altitudes of 2700~2900m was better than that of populations in Betula utilis communities at altitudes of 2500~2700 m and in Larix potaninii var. chinensis communities at altitudes of 2900~3100 m. The habitat in Abies fargesii community was most favorable for K. uniflora populations, whereas the L. potaninii var. chinensis community was moderately favourable, and Betula utilis community was marginal. From principal component analysis (PCA) of the nine main environmental factors that influenced the modular growth of K. uniflora populations, human disturbance, climate (illumination, air temperature and humidity), and soil condition (pH and moisture), were shown to be the most important factors. In addition, the thickness of humus and the organic content of soil, and the coverage of the community also played important roles. Reflecting the importance of asexual propagation in the life of K. uniflora and the special range of dependent environmental variables, more attention should be paid on protecting and building favorable environmental conditions. Disturbance by human beings should be stopped. The habitat of communities of Abies fargesii, Betula utilis, and L. potaninii var. chinensis, where K. uniflora populations live should be conserved. The action of blindly transferring individuals of K. uniflora from the wild to the garden should not be promoted.

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