生物多样性 ›› 2002, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (2): 163-169.doi: 10.17520/biods.2002020

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

都江堰地区小型哺乳动物群落与生境类型关系的初步研究

肖治术, 王玉山, 张知彬*, 马勇   

  1. 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室,北京 100080
  • 收稿日期:2001-05-21 修回日期:2001-12-26 出版日期:2002-05-20

Preliminary studies on the relationships between communities of small mammals and habitat types in Dujiangyan Region, Sichuan

XIAO Zhi-Shu, WANG Yu-Shan, ZHANG Zhi-Bin, MA Yong   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture,Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080
  • Received:2001-05-21 Revised:2001-12-26 Online:2002-05-20

于2000年10月底至11月初,对都江堰地区中亚热带常绿阔叶林带不同生境类型中小型哺乳动物群落的多样性变化进行了初步研究。共捕获小型哺乳动物12种,其中啮齿目(Rodentia)鼠科(Muridae)10种,食虫目(Insectivora)鼩鼱科(Soricidae)2种。总捕获率为10.67%。在所调查的7个生境中,以干扰较轻的次生林中小型哺乳动物物种多样性指(1.8438)和均匀度(0.9475)最高,灌丛、次生林1、原生林和弃耕地均有较高的多样性指数;农田受人类的干扰最严重,物种单一,优势度(0.5703)明显;柳杉林中的多样性指数(1.3380)和均匀度(0.8313)均较低。但原生林的物种多样性指数(1.4305)略低于次生林(1.8475和1.4610)、灌丛(1.6398)和弃耕地(1.6566)。根据不同生境内群落相似性指数进行系统聚类,7个生境在相似性指数0.0952处全部聚合在一起。灌丛、原生林和次生林中主要分布有森林型小型哺乳动物,聚为一类,为森林群落型;柳杉林和农田以大足鼠(Rattus nitidus)为优势种,聚为一类,为农田群落型;弃耕地一方面由于群落多样性指数较高(1.6566),另一方面其农田型小型哺乳动物仍占较高比例(46.67%),所以在聚类图中另成一类,为农林交错型。结果表明,人类活动过度干扰的生境(如农田、柳杉林)多样性指数最低;适度干扰的生境(如次生林、灌丛、弃耕地)多样性指数最高;干扰较少的生境(如原生林)多样性指数略低。

Variation in diversity of communities of small mammals in seven different habitats from the median subtropical evergreen broad leaved forest belt in the Dujiangyan Region was studied from the end of October to the beginning of November 2000. Twelve species, comprising ten Muridae (Rodentia) and two Soricidae (Insectivora), were captured. The total rate of small mammals captured was 10.7%.Analyses of diversity of small mammals in different habitats show that species diversity index (1.84) and evenness index (0.95) are highest in secondary forest, where human disturbance has been moderate in recent years. Those in shrubland, secondary forest/primary forest and abandoned farmland are also high, while species are rare and the species dominance index is high (0.57) in farmland, where human disturbance is most serious. Species diversity index (1.34) and evenness index (0.83) are also lower in plantation of Cryptomeria fortunei. Species diversity index in primary forest (1.43) is slightly lower than that in secondary forests (1.85 and 1.46), shrubland (1.64) or abandoned farmland (1.66), which results from habitat degradation. Based on similarity indices, seven habitats can be clustered at the level of 0.095 with systematic clustering. Small mammals of forest type are mainly distributed in shrubland, secondary forests and primary forest, which are clustered into one group. Farmland and plantation of C. fortunei are dominated by Rattus nitidus and belong to the farmland type. Abandoned farmland is an ecotone of farmland and forest, because of its higher diversity index (1.66) and higher rate of small mammals of farmland type (46.7%). The results show that diversity is the lowest in habitats where disturbances are most serious (e.g. farmland and plantation of C. fortunei) and highest in moderately disturbed habitats (e.g. secondary forest, shrub and abandoned farmlands) and slightly lower in disturbed habitats (e.g. primary forest).

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