生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (3): 284-293.doi: 10.17520/biods.2001043

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

分子生态学研究与动物多样性保护

杨玉慧, 李义明   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2000-10-30 修回日期:2001-03-09 出版日期:2001-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 李义明

Molecular ecology and animal biodiversity conservation

YANG Yu-Hui, LI Yi-Ming   

  1. Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100080
  • Received:2000-10-30 Revised:2001-03-09 Online:2001-08-20
  • Contact: LI Yi-Ming

分子生态学的发展揭开了生物多样性保护研究的新篇章。分子技术的应用克服了传统生态学方法中的一些难题,如野外调查周期长、分辨率有限、实验条件不易控制等。应用各种分子标记(如:RFLP 、VNTR、 RAPD、 DNA测序等)可以分析种群地理格局和异质种群动态、确定种群间的基因流、研究瓶颈效应对种群的影响以及确定个体间的亲缘关系等等。所有这些研究都是指导物种保护和濒危种群的恢复所必需的。种或品系特异性的分子标记技术能够解决形态分类中的模糊现象,确定基于遗传物质的谱系关系,还可以用来分析近缘种间杂交问题。这些问题的解决有助于确定物种优先保护顺序,选择保护地区。近年来引起重视的主要组织相容性复合体(MHC)DNA变异分析可能会在研究种群对疾病的易感性等一系列种群特异性问题方面非常有用。随着分子技术的不断发展,会有更多的保护生物学问题得到解决,尤其是结合野外调查统计数据应用多个分子标记对目标种群进行研究,所得到的结果会更精确,更有说服力。

Recent advances in molecular ecology opened a new chapter in conservation biology study. Disadvantages such as the long2duration of field studies , limited resolution and difficulties in the cont rol of experimental conditions in t raditionalecology research are seen to be overcome by molecular ecology methods. Molecular markers (RFL P , VNTR , RAPD , mitochondrial DNA , etc. ) provide efficient tools for the analyses of phylogeographic patterns , metapopulation dynamics , gene flow , population bottleneck effect s and individual relatedness. All of these are very important for biodiversity conservation and restoration of declining species. Species or race specific molecular markers could help to clarify ambiguity in morphological classification , phylogenetic relationships and possible hybridization among closely related taxa. This would be useful for defining the priority in species protection and the selection of protected areas. Recently , genomic regions encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were used to evaluate various specific questions such as population susceptibility to diseases and appear promising for future analysis. The continuing development of molecular technology will further enhance conservation ecology study. Studies based on multiple molecular marker systems when combined with ecological , demographic , behavioral and physiological data collected in the field , would provide a more definitive assessment of various conservation issues.

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