生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (3): 275-283.doi: 10.17520/biods.2001042

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国黄牛品种多样性及其保护

陈幼春, 曹红鹤   

  1. (中国农业科学院畜牧研究所,  北京 100094)
  • 收稿日期:2001-04-05 修回日期:2001-06-15 出版日期:2001-08-20

Diversity of Chinese yellow cattle breeds and their conservation

CHEN You-Chun, CAO Hong-He   

  1. Institute of Animal Science , Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Beijing 100094
  • Received:2001-04-05 Revised:2001-06-15 Online:2001-08-20

总结关于中国黄牛起源和品种多样性的文献,依据头颅骨分类、毛色、血液蛋白多态性、体型体态、染色体组型、线粒体DNA和考古论证的资料可知,在各地的牛种中,中国的无峰牛来自于两种原牛:在长城以北有长角型的普通牛的分支土雷诺蒙古利亚(turano-mongolia)和青藏高原有矮型的短角型普通牛(draft pimigenius);有峰牛来自于三种原牛:来自北非、西亚的瘤牛,印度瘤牛和东南亚瘤牛。这些牛的后裔大多以混血种形态存在:关中和中原地区牛受西亚瘤牛的影响,胸垂较发达,多皱折、体格较大,云南部分高峰牛受印度瘤牛影响,东南地区高峰牛为古代准牛属爪哇牛被东南亚瘤牛吸收杂交的后裔,属矮小型,体躯无脐垂,有胸垂而皱折贫乏,肩峰属头位,耳端较尖而不下垂。在起源上,藏牛为原始种,海南高峰牛(zebu sinesis)为一个瘤牛的发源地,云南高峰牛是一个特殊种, 南阳牛是含有非洲瘤牛血液的特殊种。全国的黄牛在总体上可分为两大系统三大类型,根据体态特征分为无峰、低峰和有峰三种,按地理分布为蒙古、黄淮和长珠三组。现代国民经济发展引进近30个外国品种,加速了地方品种的灭绝。本文还提出了家牛保种应以特殊品种和边缘地区以及特有生态区牛种为主的主张。

Based on a summary of cattle breeds originating in China according to data from skull classification , coat color , blood protein polymorphisms , body stature , ecological characters , chromosome group , mtDNA , and archaeological discoveries , Chinese cattle are f rom two major origins. One was Bos tuarus , including turino-mongolian in the regions out side of the Great Wall and draft taurine on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The other origin was Zebu cattle , of which there were three. The first was from west Asia , the Af ricander type , second was an indicus origin , influencing Yunnan humped cattle , and the third was South-east Asian in origin , which was supposedly the result of crosses between Bibos banteng and local high-hump cattle. Humpless cattle are mainly the Mongolian breed and their derived breeds , and Tibetan draft cattle. The humped cattle in cent ral regions of China , the Nanyang breed , is obviously influenced by the Af ricander type. When this form breeds with others , the resulting forms have a well-developed chest dewlap and folds. Humped cattle breeds in south-east China have chest dewlaps with poorly developed fold and without an abdominal dewlap. In general , they are two ecological systems , which are divided into three groups. On the ecological side , there are humpless , low humped and high humped cattle. In geographic dist ribution there are the Mongolian group , Huanghe and Huaihai group and Changjiang and Zhujiang group. Nowadays , more than 30 breeds have been int roduced from abroad , and this is accelerating the loss of local cattle genotypes. We make some proposals for conservation of cattle genetic resources.

No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed