生物多样性 ›› 2001, Vol. 09 ›› Issue (3): 265-274.doi: 10.17520/biods.2001041

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

行为的结构、刚性和多样性

蒋志刚, 李春旺, 彭建军, 胡慧建   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2001-05-31 修回日期:2001-07-15 出版日期:2001-08-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚

Structure, elasticity and diversity of animal behavior

JIANG Zhi-Gang, LI Chun-Wang, PENG Jian-Jun, HU Hui-Jian   

  1. Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing  100080
  • Received:2001-05-31 Revised:2001-07-15 Online:2001-08-20
  • Contact: JIANG ZhiGang

有关动物行为的定义、结构和多样性是一个被长期忽视的研究领域。然而,动物行为多样性不仅是一个生物多样性基础理论问题,也与濒危动物的成功保护有关。本文定义了动物行为以及行为的刚性与弹性,探讨了行为表达的空间条件以及生境因素与行为多样性之间的关系。我们发现雌雄大熊猫个体在较大的活动空间里的发情行为表现的频次及活动频率显著地高于那些在较小的空间里的雌雄个体,说明活动空间对雄性或雌性大熊猫的发情行为有显著影响。圈养空间影响麋鹿的社会行为、通讯行为和聚群行为。圈养在小圈中的麋鹿没有出现同性聚群现象,当圈养麋鹿野放后即表现出这种现象。圈养环境中长大的动物个体由于缺乏行为的表达空间,仅仅表现出刚性大的行为,丧失了许多弹性大的行为,从而导致动物行为的多样性下降。对那些生活在开阔草原和荒漠上的野生有蹄类动物实施迁地保护时,必须考虑其逃逸空间,为那些动物建立自然保护区时,则必须考虑其迁移空间。此外,动物行为的多样性与生境元素有关。我们应当给圈养动物提供复杂而多样的环境,以增加圈养野生动物表达寻找食物、建立领域、筑巢和避开不利环境等行为的可能性,维持濒危个体的行为多样性。

关键词: 特殊生境, 太行花, 生境分析

The definition of behavior , the structure of behavior and diversity of behavior have been ignored by researchers for a long time. We defined the concepts of elasticity and inelasticity of animal behavior. We also studied the space requirements for animals to perform behavior. Based on these basic concepts , we discuss the relationship between habitat elements and behavioral diversity. We discovered that captive space affected the social behavior and communication behavior in Père David’s Deer. Available space also had a profound impact on aggregation behavior. Père David’s Deer that were kept in small pens showed no sign of sexual segregation. However , when the deer were released into the field , the stag left the hinds. Sexual segregation , which had been suppressed in the Père David’s deer population held in small pens , was resurgent once the animals had more space. We also discovered that male and female giant panda living in a larger captive space had more court ship behaviors and spent more time on activities. Thus space had a profound impact on court ship behavior of male or female giant pandas. Animals living in captive environment s for generations may only perform behaviors of high inelasticity and may loose behaviors of elasticity. Such a process will reduce behavioral diversity. Taking the saiga and Mongolian wild ass as examples , we point out that we should consider escape space and seasonal migration space requirement s when we keep endangered ungulates in captivity or establish reserves for them. Diversity of animal behavior is not only a fundamental component of biodiversity but it is also relevant to the successful conservation of endangered species , particularly ex sit u conservation. When we attempt to preserve endangered species in captivity , we should pay special attention to maintaining behavioral diversity of these animals , because behavioral diversity is an integral part of biodiversity.

Key words: special habitat, Taihangia rupestris, habitat analysis

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