生物多样性 ›› 1999, Vol. 07 ›› Issue (3): 220-225.doi: 10.17520/biods.1999034

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

鸟兽物种多样性测度的G-F指数方法

蒋志刚, 纪力强   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所,  北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:1998-10-27 修回日期:1999-03-04 出版日期:1999-08-20

Avian-mammalian species diversity in nine representative sites in China

JIANG Zhi-Gang, JI Li-Qiang   

  1. Institute of Zoology , Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing  100080
  • Received:1998-10-27 Revised:1999-03-04 Online:1999-08-20

评价物种多样性是目前生物多样性研究中的一项紧迫任务。我们提出一种基于信息测度的G-F指数公式,利用生物普查得到的鸟类和兽类名录计算一个地区的物种多样性。首先计算属间的多样性(G指数)和科间的多样性(F指数),然后,再利用G指数和F指数的比值进行标准化,得出G-F指数。在这一指数体系中,F指数包括科中和科间的多样性。如果G-F指数趋近1,则代表科间多样性的F指数下降,或者代表属多样性的G指数上升;否则G-F指数趋近零或为负数。信息测度通常也用于生物群落的生态多样性。然而,G-F指数与生态多样性不同。G-F指数测定的一个地区一个生物类群中科属间的物种多样性,而生态多样性指数研究生物群落中物种组成及种间个体的多寡。利用G-F指数研究评估生物多样性保护有如下优点:(1)G-F指数提供了一种简捷有效的生物多样性保护评估方法,因为在许多地点已经进行过生物普查,编写了动物、植物名录;(2)G-F指数是一种标准化指数,可以进行不同地区间生物多样性比较。在动物界,特别是无脊椎动物中,尚未鉴定的物种占多数,而鸟类和兽类中尚未鉴定的物种很少。我们应用鸟类和兽类名录计算了G-F指数,选择了梵净山、大瑶山、伏牛山、凉水、北京—天津、海北、白音锡勒、青海湖和帕米尔高原等9个地区,进行了物种多样性的比较研究。结果表明:在上述地区,鸟类的G指数高于兽类的G指数,但差异并不显著(p=0.11)。鸟类的F指数显著地高于兽类的F指数(p<0.05)。鸟类G-F指数与兽类G-F指数相关(r=0.68, p<0.05)。

Species check-lists of birds or mammals , normally accomplished after a general biological survey , are valuable for calculating the diversity index. We recommend a method that uses avian and mammalian species check-lists to assess the species diversity in an area. The first step is to compute the diversity indexes at the genus level ( G-index) and the family level ( F-index) , then to calculate the ratio of G-index and F-index as the G-F index . The G-index reflects the diversity at the genus level . The F-index has two components , i. e. the diversity within and the diversity among families. G-F index ranges between 0 and 1. (1) F-index , DF : For a particular family k :        DFk = - r n i = 1 piln pi (1) Where n = the number of genera in the family k , pi = ski / Sk , ski = the number of species in genus i , Sk = the total number of species in family k. For overall F-index :           DF = r m k = 1 DFk (2) Where m = the total number of families in the class (2) G-index , DG : DG = - r p j = 1 DGi = - r p j = 1 qjln qj (3) Where qj = sj / S , sj = the number of species in genus j , S = the total number of species in the class , p = the total number of genus in the class.(3) G-Findex : DG-F = 1 - DG DF (4) We calculated the G-F indexes for nine representative sites. They are the Dayaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve , the Funiushan Mountain Nature Reserve , the Fanjingshan Mountain Nature Reserve , the Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve , the Haibei Alpine Ecosystem Research Station , the Liangshui Nature Reserve , the BeijingTianjin region , the Baiyinxile Grassland Ecosystem Research Station , and the Parmir Plateau for a comparative species diversity study. Based on the biological census data , such as the species check-lists of birds and mammals , G-F index provides a rapid and efficient assessment of biodiversity , because the species check-lists are readily available. In the study areas , the F-index of birds was significantly higher than that of mammals , indicating higher species diversity in birds than that in mammals at the study sites. The avian and mammalian G-F indexes of the study sites were closely correlated.

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