生物多样性 ›› 1999, Vol. 07 ›› Issue (2): 151-155.doi: 10.17520/biods.1999023

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

终止子技术与生物安全

钱迎倩, 马克平, 桑卫国, 魏伟   

  1. (中国科学院植物研究所,北京 100093)
  • 收稿日期:1999-02-09 修回日期:1999-03-15 出版日期:1999-05-20

Terminator technology and biosafety

QIAN Ying-Qian, MA Ke-Ping, SANG Wei-Guo, WEI Wei   

  1. Institute of Botany , The Chinese Academy of Sciences , China 100093
  • Received:1999-02-09 Revised:1999-03-15 Online:1999-05-20

终止子技术是美国Delta and Pine Land种子公司和美国农业部联合申请、经美国专利局1998年3月批准的一项专利。整个过程可叙述为遗传工程师在转基因作物中加入了由3个基因组成的终止子基因;得到的转基因作物的种子由种子公司加上一种诱导剂;经诱导剂的作用及终止子基因间的相互作用,在种子胚胎发育的后期产生一种毒素;这种毒素杀死了发育后期的胚胎;最后得到的是成熟但不育的种子。专利获得后,引起国际上巨大反响。国际农业研究磋商小组指出,终止子技术必须禁止,不然将给全球食品保障带来影响。原因是这项技术会使农民无法留种、对遗传多样性有负影响,由于农民不再育种影响到持续农业的发展,可能出现出售或交换不能发芽的种子以及通过花粉非故意的传播造成生物安全的风险。第三世界国家认为这项技术是“种子的灾难”、“农业上的中子弹”。虽然转基因作物产生不育种子可能在解决转基因逃逸带来的生态风险上有益处,但这个收获与终止子技术可能给全球食品保障带来危机相比,两者就不能等量齐观了。从另一角度看,这项技术可能又是遗传工程带来的另一种生物安全危机。

In March 1998 , the Delta and Pine Land seed company and the U. S. Department of Agriculture announced that they had received a patent on the“Terminator Technology”. The technology involves three following steps :genetic engineers transfer terminator genes to a crop ; the seed company initiates the terminator process by adding an inducer before selling the seeds ; farmers then plant seeds , and harvest mature ,but sterile , seeds. At a late stage of seed development , under the control of the inducer ,one gene in the terminator becomes active and produces toxin. The toxin kills the embryo , resulting in the sterile seed. Enormous international responses were induced by this patent . The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) pointed out that the terminator technology must be banned in order to defend the world food security. The CGIAR cited the following reasons : This technology will stop farmers from producing fertile seeds from their own crops , consequently , the genetic diversity of crops and sustainabity of agriculture will be adversely affected. It will probably induce the risk of the sale or exchange of sterile seeds , and risk of biosafety through pollen spread. Some third world countries warmed that this technique is“seeds of disaster”, and“the neutron bomb of agriculture”. Sterile seeds produced by genetically modified crops with terminator genes may solve the ecological risk brought about from transgene escape , but the accompanied risk on biosafety and expense of global food security is no solution. From another point of view , this technology itself may be the another kind of risk of biosafety derived from genetic engineering.

No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed