生物多样性 ›› 1996, Vol. 04 ›› Issue (3): 130-134.doi: 10.17520/biods.1996023

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国麋鹿遗传多样性现状与保护对策

于长青   

  1. (中国林业科学研究院森林保护研究所,  北京 100091)
  • 收稿日期:1995-03-15 修回日期:1995-12-29 出版日期:1996-08-20

Status of genetic diversity and conservation strategy of Pere David's deer in China

Yu Changqing   

  1. Institute of Forest Protection , Chinese Academy of Forestry , Beijing 100091
  • Received:1995-03-15 Revised:1995-12-29 Online:1996-08-20

通过对麋鹿野生种群的绝灭过程、圈养历史、种群增长及遗传多样性状况的分析研究,认为麋鹿脱离野生种群成为完全的圈养群体约有100多年的历史,捕猎和栖息地丧失是其绝灭的根本原因。麋鹿最初引入欧洲时曾经历了严重的近交衰退阶段,目前其耐受近交的能力显著增强。截至1994年我国麋鹿已达近500只,其遗传变异量约为其野生种群的70%。在我国重建麋鹿自然种群不仅完全可能,而且也只有如此才能使麋鹿在自然中进化并丰富其受损的遗传多样性。

The paper explores the extinction of wild population, history and population growth in captivity, and the status of genetic diversity for Pere David's deer. The results show that Pere David's deer was extinct in China in the end of 19th century mainly because of hunting and loss of habitat. Inbreeding depression in the viability and sex ratio occurred in the early days since the deer were introduced into Europe. The gathering and releasing of the deer into the vast Woburn Park made the social behavior fully expressed and the population grew rapidly and strengthened the capacity to tolerate inbreeding. Now there are about 500 Pere David's deer in China. The reintroduced Pere David's deer in Dafeng reserve have adapted to the seminatural condition very well both in feeding and reproduction, and the effective population size is about 26 with the loss of heterozygosity about 30% of the wild population. It is suggested that new farms and more natural population experiments have to be established for conserving the genetic diversity of the deer.

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