生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 563-568.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070167

• 论文 • 上一篇    

遗传资源获取与惠益分享: 背景、进展与挑战

薛达元1,2*   

  1. 1 (中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081)
    2 (国家环保总局南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042)
  • 出版日期:2007-09-20 发布日期:2007-09-20

Access and benefit sharing of genetic resources: background, progress and challenges

Dayuan Xue1,2*   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing 100081
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, State Environmental Protection Administration, Nanjing 210042
  • Online:2007-09-20 Published:2007-09-20

摘要: 本文回顾了《生物多样性公约》(CBD)有关遗传资源获取与惠益分享(access and benefit sharing, ABS)问题的谈判背景, 介绍了ABS问题特设工作组的工作历程。对《公约》第8次缔约方大会以来有关ABS问题的谈判进展进行了详细的分析, 特别是有关遗传资源来源证书制度的讨论与成果, 进而对当前ABS问题面临的挑战进行了分析研究, 包括国际层面上WTO体系和世界知识产权组织(WIPO)体系与CBD之间在遗传资源及相关传统知识在知识产权问题上的冲突, 国家层面上ABS问题的立法需求与焦点问题, 以及在确定遗传资源来源和实施惠益分享方面的技术限制等。

Abstract: In this paper, the background for access and benefit sharing (ABS) of genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is reviewed, and the work of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Access and Benefit Sharing for Genetic Resources is introduced. Then the negotiation progresses since the Eighth Conference of Parties (COP-8) of CBDare analyzed in details, especially the discussion and outcomes in an internationally recognized certificate of origin/source/legal provenance for genetic resources. Furthermore, the current challenges in ABS issue are also described and analyzed. The main challenges in-clude: (1) at international level, conflicts between CBD and WTO/TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intel-lectual Property Rights) system as well as WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) system on intel-lectual property right of genetic resources and related traditional knowledge; (2) at national level, ABS legis-lation requirement and related key problems; and (3) technical limitations in identifications of genetic re-sources’ origins and enforcement of benefit sharing system.