生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 445-455.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070078

• 论文 •    下一篇

云南哀牢山原生林及次生林群落附生地衣物种多样性与分布

李苏1, 2, 刘文耀1, 4*, 王立松3, 杨国平1, 李达文1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园昆明分部, 昆明 650223)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
    3 (中国科学院昆明植物研究所, 昆明 650204)
    4 (Curtin University of Technology, Perth WA 6845, Australia)
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-15 修回日期:2007-06-16 出版日期:2007-09-20

Species diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens in the primary and secondary forests in Ailao Mountain, Yunnan

Su Li1, 2, Wenyao Liu1, 4*, Lisong Wang3, Guoping Yang1, Dawen Li1   

  1. 1 Kunming Divison, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3 Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China
    4 Curtin University of Technology, Perth WA 6845, Australia
  • Received:2007-03-15 Revised:2007-06-16 Online:2007-09-20

附生地衣是森林附生植物的重要类群之一, 在维护森林生态系统的物种多样性以及水分和养分循环等方面发挥着重要作用。作者于2005年12月至2006年5月利用树干取样法调查了云南哀牢山徐家坝地区原生山地常绿阔叶林及其次生群落栎类萌生林、滇山杨(Populus bonatii)林和花椒(Zanthoxylum bungeanum)人工林中525株不同种类和径级树木距地面 0–2.0 m处附生地衣的组成和分布, 并收集了各个群落地面上凋落的地衣, 分析了林冠层附生地衣的物种组成。研究结果表明, 该区森林中附生地衣物种比较丰富。共收集到附生地衣61种, 分属17科29属, 其中原生林、栎类萌生林、滇山杨林和花椒人工林分别有51、53、46和23种。在树干距地面 0–2.0 m位置, 各群落中的附生地衣组成明显不同;但在林冠层中, 各群落内的附生地衣基本相似。原生林中附生地衣种类较多, 但分布不均匀。树干附生地衣的Shannon-Wiener和Simpson多样性指数以栎类萌生林最高, 分别为2.71和0.89;花椒林和滇山杨林次之, 分别为2.43–2.45和0.88–0.89;原生林最低, 为1.25和0.67。树干方位、宿主种类和宿主径级等都对附生地衣的物种组成和多样性有着重要影响, 附生地衣更多地出现于树干南向方位, 云南越桔(Vaccinium duclouxii)的附生地衣最为丰富, 胸径5.0–25.0 cm的树木上附生地衣较多。哀牢山山地森林群落中丰富的附生地衣种类及物种多样性在维系本区山地森林生态系统生物多样性格局方面具有重要的作用。

Epiphytic lichens, an important component of epiphytes, play vital roles in biodiversity sustainability, water and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Species composition and distribution of epiphytic lichens on trunk at 0–2.0 m height were surveyed on 525 individual trees, and lichen litterfall was collected over two year (2005–2006) in primary forest and three secondary forests in Xujiaba region of Ailao Mountain, Yunnan. The results showed that the epiphytic lichens were abundant in thses forests. In total, 61 lichens species belonging to 26 genera and 17 families were recorded. Of them, 51 species were found in the primary forest, 53 species in oak coppice and 46 species in Populus bonatii forest, while only 26 species in Zanthoxylum bungeanum plantation. There were significant differences in composition and diversity of epiphytic lichens on trunks between the primary and secondary forests, whereas the main species of lichens was similar in canopies of the primary and secondary forests. The primary forest had more lichen species, with unevenness distribution. The Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index of lichens on trucks at 0–2.0 m height were 2.71 and 0.89 for the oak coppice, 2.43–2.45 and 0.88–0.89 for the secondary P. bonatii forest and Z. bungeanum plantation, and 1.25 and 0.67 for the primary forest, respectively.The composition and distribution of lichens were influenced by the aspects of the trucks, host trees and their sizes. Richer number and amounts of lichens are found on southern aspect of trunks. Vaccinium duclouxii was the host tree with the richest epiphytic lichens in the forests in the area. Most epiphytic lichens occurred on medium stems of DBH 5.0–25.0 cm. The rich species diversity of epiphytic lichens and their distribution patterns were important for maintaining biodiversity and ecological processes in the montane forest ecosystems.

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