生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 558-562.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070058

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城市化对植物多样性影响的研究进展

彭羽, 刘雪华*   

  1. (清华大学环境科学与工程系, 北京 100084)
  • 出版日期:2007-09-20

Research progress in effects of urbanization on plant biodiversity

Yu Peng, Xuehua Liu*   

  1. Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
  • Online:2007-09-20

本文综述了城市化对植物多样性影响的研究进展。随着全球特别是发展中国家城市化水平的提高, 城市化对生物多样性的影响逐渐引起了人们的重视。城市化造成了本土植物物种的丢失和外来物种的增加。在空间分布上, 城市化还常使城区本土植物多样性沿着远郊农区-城郊-城区梯度性下降; 但是由于引进大量外来物种, 总体植物多样性反而升高, 沿着远郊农区-城郊-城区梯度性升高。城市化对植物种类组成也有很大影响,优势种在远郊农区、城郊和城区呈现不同。城市化对植物多样性影响的机制主要有人为引入外来物种、小生境改变以及景观格局的变化三个方面。以下四个研究方向将越来越重要: (1) 不同区域、不同方法、不同学科的系统整合研究;(2) 城市化扩张与植物多样性变化过程的定位监测研究; (3) 本土植物多样性丢失以及性状改变的内在机制研究, 特别是外来物种与本地物种的相互作用过程和机制的研究; (4) 城市植物多样性保护研究。

An overview of research progress of urbanization impacts on plant biodiversity was given. With a worldwide expanding of urbanization, especially in developing countries, effects of urbanization on biodiversity are attracting more attention. Urbanization reduces native plant species whilst increases introduced plant species. As for distribution of plant species, richness of native plant decreases along rural, rural-urban fringe and urban gradient. However, richness of introduced plant species increases, which results in increasing of total plant species richness along the same gradient. Urbanization also produces the great influence on plant species composition and makes the dominant species varying along the gradient. The mechanism of urbani-zation affecting plant biodiversity mainly lies on three aspects, i.e., introduction of exotic species, change of microhabitat, and altering of landscape pattern. Concerning further researches, four main trends will become more and more important: (1) systematical integration of different regions, various methods and multi-disciplines, (2) long-term site monitoring the urban expanding and plant biodiversity changing, (3) re-search on interior mechanism of native plant species’ loss and characteristics’ change, especially the in-ter-actions between the exotic and native plant species, and (4) urban plant biodiversity conservation.

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