生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 548-557.DOI: 10.1360/biodiv.070010

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生物入侵对鸟类的生态影响

干晓静, 李博, 陈家宽, 马志军*   

  1. (复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站, 上海 200433)
  • 出版日期:2007-09-20 发布日期:2007-09-20

The ecological effects of biological invasions on birds

Xiaojing Gan, Bo Li, Jiakuan Chen, Zhijun Ma*   

  1. Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
  • Online:2007-09-20 Published:2007-09-20

摘要: 生物入侵是全球生物多样性面临的最主要威胁之一, 入侵种在改变入侵地环境的同时也使当地的生物受到极大影响。鸟类在生态系统中处于较高的营养级, 生态系统中任何一个环节的变化都可能对鸟类造成一定的影响。本文回顾了哺乳动物、鸟类、无脊椎动物和植物等不同生物类群的入侵对本地鸟类生态影响方面的研究进展。外来生物对鸟类的影响主要表现在以下几方面: (1)外来哺乳动物对成鸟、幼鸟或鸟卵的捕食作用; (2)外来鸟类与本地鸟类竞争栖息地和食物资源, 与当地的近缘种杂交而造成基因流失; (3)外来无脊椎动物改变本地鸟类的栖息环境和食物状况, 甚至直接捕食本地鸟类; (4)外来植物入侵改变入侵地的植物群落组成和结构, 造成本地鸟类的栖息地丧失或破碎化, 并通过改变入侵地生态系统的食物链结构而对高营养级的鸟类产生影响。最后, 作者还提出了该领域有待解决的问题和今后可能的研究方向。

Abstract: Biological invasion is recognized as one of the greatest threats to the global biodiversity because invasive exotic species not only alter the local environments but also have serious ecological effects on native species. Birds are positioned at high trophic level within the food web in the ecosystem, and thus any changes within the system can affect the birds in one way or another. The ecological effects of different exotic taxa like mammals, birds, invertebrates and plants on native birds are reviewed in this paper. In summary, the exotic species can affect native bird species in four main ways, 1) predation of birds or eggs by the exotic mammals; 2) competition for habitats and foods with exotic birds, and loss of genetic diversity by hybridization with the closely-related exotic species; 3) direct and indirect alterations of native habitats and food resources, and predation by the exotic invertebrates; and 4) loss and fragmentation of habitats for native birds through altering species composition and structure of native plant communities by exotic plants. The unsolved questions and future research directions in this field are also addressed.