生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (4): 329-336.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.070004

• 论文 •    下一篇

围栏条件下影响岩松鼠寻找分散贮藏核桃种子的关键因素

张洪茂1, 2, 3, 张知彬1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院动物研究所农业虫鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室, 北京 100101)
    2 (华中农业大学水产学院, 武汉 430070)
    3 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2007-01-09 修回日期:2007-06-13 出版日期:2007-07-20

Key factors affecting the capacity of David’s rock squirrels (Sciurotamias davidianus) to discover scatter-hoarded seeds in enclosures

Hongmao Zhang 1, 2, 3, Zhibin Zhang 1*   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents in Agriculture, Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070
    3 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2007-01-09 Revised:2007-06-13 Online:2007-07-20

在北京东灵山地区半自然围栏内, 通过将核桃(Juglans regia)种子用塑料袋封闭处理减弱嗅觉信号和埋藏处理阻断视觉信号, 研究了岩松鼠(Sciurotamias davidianus)对置于地表、埋藏、封闭后置于地表和封闭后埋藏核桃种子的发现率, 以探讨岩松鼠找寻种子的主要方式; 同时还研究了岩松鼠对自己埋藏和其他个体埋藏种子的发现率, 以探讨空间记忆在岩松鼠找寻自己埋藏种子时是否有重要作用。岩松鼠对各组种子的发现率为: 埋藏组59.5±27.6%, 地表组53.3±27.7%, 封闭埋藏组31.0±27.2%, 封闭地表组26.3±28.6%; 其中埋藏组与地表组较高, 差异不显著(Z=–0.356, P=0.722), 封闭埋藏组和封闭地表组较低, 差异也不显著(Z=–0.493, P=0.622), 即通过埋藏处理阻断视觉信号对岩松鼠的种子发现率没有显著影响; 埋藏组显著高于封闭埋藏组(Z=–2.943, P=0.003), 地表组显著高于封闭地表组(Z=–2.084, P=0.037), 即通过封闭处理减弱嗅觉信号显著减少了岩松鼠对种子的发现率; 当种子被封闭且埋藏时, 有31.0%的种子被找到, 即当通过封闭处理减弱嗅觉信号, 埋藏处理阻断视觉信号后, 岩松鼠仍能通过随机探索找到部分种子。自埋组(57.9±21.8 %)和他埋组(54.4±33.9 %)的种子发现率都较高, 且差异不显著(Z=–0.157, P=0.875), 即岩松鼠在找寻自己埋藏的种子时没有明显优势。这些结果表明: 围栏条件下, 嗅觉在岩松鼠找寻贮藏种子时起主要作用, 然后随机探索也具有一定意义, 而视觉和空间记忆意义不大。

Olfaction, vision, random search and spatial memory have been suggested to be important factors for hoarders to rediscover hoarded foods, but whether they work differently on different species is not clear. In this study, we studied the role of olfaction, vision, random search and spatial memory on seed discovery capacity of David’s rock squirrels (Sciurotamias davidianus) in enclosures in the Dongling Mountain, north-western Beijing, China. We decreased the olfactory signal of the experimental seeds (cultivated walnut, Jug-lans regia) by sealing with plastic bags, and blocked the visual signal by burying the seeds in soil. We com-pared seed discovery rates of the following four treatments: (1) On ground (G): seeds placed on ground sur-face; (2) Buried (B): seeds buried in soil; (3) Sealed & placed on ground (S & G): seeds placed on ground surface sealed in plastic bags; and (4) Sealed & buried (S & B): seeds buried in soil sealed in plastic bags. We also compared seed discovery rates when S. davidianus discovered seeds buried by themselves (Self-Buried, S-B) and by other individuals (Other-Buried, O-B). The ranking of the seed discovery rates of the four treatments were B (Mean±SD: 59.5±27.6 %) > G (53.3±27.7 %) > S & B (31.0±27.2 %) > S & G (26.3±28.6 %); Seed discovery rates of B and G treatments (Z=–0.356, P=0.722), and of S & B and S & G treatments (Z=–0.493, P=0.622) were not significantly different. This suggests that the seed discovery ca-pacity of S. davidianus was not significantly affected by blocking the visual signal. Seed discovery rates of G was significantly higher than S & G (Z=–2.084, P=0.037), and B was significantly higher than S & B (Z=–2.943, P=0.003). This suggests that the seed discovery capacity of S. davidianus was significantly de-creased when olfactory signal of seeds was decreased. When seeds were both sealed and buried (S & B), 31.0 % buried seeds were discovered, which suggests that S. davidianus could discover some seeds with random search. Moreover, seed discovery rates of S-B (57.9±21.8%) and O-B (54.4±33.9%) were not significantly different, which suggests that an individual S. davidianus has no advantage in discovering seeds buried itself, as if there was no effect of spatial memory. These results suggest that olfaction is the key factor for S. david-ianus to rediscover hoarded seeds, secondarily relying on random search. Vision and spatial memory seem to play a less important role.

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