生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (4): 400-407.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.060316

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

四川大巴山巴山水青冈群落的物种多样性特征

熊莉军1, 2, 郭柯1*, 赵常明1, 刘长成1, 2   

  1. 1 (中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化重点实验室, 北京 100093)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2006-12-18 修回日期:2007-04-06 出版日期:2007-07-20

Species diversity of Fagus pashanica community in Daba Mountains, Sichuan

Lijun Xiong1, 2, Ke Guo1*, Changming Zhao1, Changcheng Liu1, 2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2006-12-18 Revised:2007-04-06 Online:2007-07-20

巴山水青冈(Fagus pashanica)是川、陕、鄂、渝四省市交界处的特有植物。巴山水青冈林集中分布在四川省东北部的大巴山区。目前关于巴山水青冈群落的资料极其匮乏。作者在大巴山区通过对7个样地39个样方调查数据的分析, 探讨了巴山水青冈群落的物种多样性特征。主要结果有: (1) 巴山水青冈群落物种组成丰富, 共记录到维管束植物77科142属217种。乔木层物种集中于壳斗科、杜鹃花科、蔷薇科、山矾科等科; 灌木层物种集中于蔷薇科、忍冬科、壳斗科、槭树科等科; 草本层植物个体数量以苔草属(Carex)植物和普通鹿蹄草(Pyrola decorata)占绝对优势。(2) 群落乔木层物种多度对数呈倒“J”型分布, 灌木层与草本层的物种多度近似对数正态分布。群落物种丰富度由大到小依次为灌木层>草本层>乔木层; Shannon指数与Simpson指数的顺序为灌木层>乔木层>草本层; 均匀度指数的顺序为乔木层>灌木层>草本层。(3) 东坡、南坡的植物物种多样性高于北坡。乔木层Shannon指数与土壤第二层厚度回归关系显著; 草本层Shannon指数与土壤第一层厚度的回归关系显著; 灌木层的物种数和Shannon指数与土壤第一层有机质回归关系显著。(4) 群落建群种和乔木层主要树种重要值与物种多样性主要表现为负相关关系, 但与灌木层的物种多样性关系不显著(P≥0.05)。结果表明, 灌木层物种多样性主要受到环境因素的影响, 而乔木层和草本层物种多样性受到环境因子和群落自身特征的双重影响。

Fagus pashanica is an endemic species of Mt. Daba. The forest dominated by F. pashanica mainly distributed in northern Sichuan. We studied the species diversity of F. pashanica forest based on a field sur-vey of 39 quadrats in seven plots in Mt. Daba. The results showed that: (1) A total of 217 vascular plant spe-cies were recorded, belonging to 142 genera and 77 families. Dominant families in the canopy layer included Fagaceae, Ericaceae, Rosaceae and Symplocaceae, while those in the shrub layer were Rosaceae, Caprifoli-aceae, Fagaceae and Aceraceae. In the herbaceous layer, Carex spp. and Pyrola decorata dominated in individual numbers. (2) Logarithm of species abundance showed an inverse “J” shaped distribution pattern in the canopy layer and an approximate normal distribution pattern in the shrub and herbaceous layers. Species richness was highest in the shrub layer and lowest in the canopy layer. Shannon-Wiener index of the shrub layer was higher than those of the canopy and herbaceous layers. Simpson index and evenness index were highest in the canopy layer and lowest in the herbaceous layer. (3) Species diversity was higher on southern and eastern slopes than on northern slope. Regression analysis indicated various relationships between diversity and soil. (4) A significant negative correlation existed between species diversity of the community and the importance values of the dominant species and the main species in the canopy. We conclude that species diversity of the shrub layer is primarily affected by environmental factors, and species diversities of the can-opy and herbaceous layers are affected markedly by both environmental factors and overstory canopy struc-ture.

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