生物多样性 ›› 2007, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (2): 199-206.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.060244

所属专题: 最后的前沿--土壤生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖湿地与农田土壤动物多样性研究

韩立亮1, 2, 王勇1*, 王广力1, 张美文1, 李波1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 长沙 410125)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 出版日期:2007-03-20

Soil animal diversity of wetland and farmland in Dongting Lake region

Liliang Han1, 2 , Yong Wang1*, Guangli Wang1, Meiwen Zhang1, Bo Li1   

  1. 1 Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2007-03-20

为探讨洞庭湖退田还湖工程的生态恢复进程, 2005年10月对洞庭湖退田还湖区3类典型生境7个样地土壤动物群落结构进行了调查, 共获土壤动物标本8,484头, 隶属于5门11纲32个动物类群。其中, 还湖湿地捕获土壤动物类群26类, 优势类群为线虫类、蜱螨目; 未还湖农田生境捕获土壤动物类群28类, 优势类群为线虫类、蜘蛛目; 原始湿地(对照)仅捕获土壤动物13类, 优势类群为腹足类。对Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Pielou均匀性指数(E)、Simpson优势度指数(C)、Margalef丰富度指数(D)和复杂性指数(Cj) 5个多样性指标进行分析, 结果表明: (1)与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')相比, 复杂性指数(Cj)表征的土壤动物多样性更能客观地反映土壤动物分布的真实情况; (2)群落多样性与均匀度显著相关(P<0.05), 而与其他指数关系不密切; (3)在类群数上, 还湖湿地和未还湖农田都多于对照的原始湿地, 有极显著差异(P<0.01); 个体数量上看, 未还湖农田多于原始湿地, 存在极显著差异(P<0.01), 还湖湿地与原始湿地相比却没有显著差异(P>0.05)。这说明: 洞庭湖退田还湖后生态恢复较慢, 恢复效率较低。

In order to evaluate the process of ecological restoration in Dongting Lake region, we surveyed the community structure and diversity of soil animals in October 2005. A total of 8,484 individuals, belonging to five phyla and 11 classes, were obtained from three typical habitat types, i.e., wetland restored from farm-land, farmland, and original wetland. Twenty-six species were obtained from wetland restored from farmland, of which Nematode and Acarina accounted for 66.97%, while 28 species were collected from farmland, of which Nematode and Araneae occupied 61.79%. However, only 13 species were found in the original wet-land, of which Gastropoda was the absolutely dominant group, accounting for 79.89%. The results analyzed using diversity indices (H′, E, C, D, Cj) indicated that: (1) Complexity index (Cj ) is manifested better than H' in representing the complexity and the diversity of animal communities; (2) Community diversity index (H′), had a closer relationship with evenness index (E) (P<0.05); (3) Wetland restored from farmland and the farmland were richer in soil animal taxa than the original wetland (P<0.01). In terms of soil animal individu-als, there were far more in the farmland than in the original wetland (P<0.01), whereas no significant differ-ence (P>0.05) was found between the wetland restored from farmland and in the original wetland. The results indicated that the ecological restoration process in Dongting Lake region was fairly slow and inefficient.

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