生物多样性

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生物遗传资源的元所有权、衍生所有权和修饰权

蒋志刚   

  1. (中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100080)
  • 收稿日期:2004-11-09 修回日期:2005-06-21 出版日期:2005-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚

Meta-property right, derived property right and right of modification of biogenetic resources

Zhigang Jiang   

  1. Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080
  • Received:2004-11-09 Revised:2005-06-21 Online:2005-07-20
  • Contact: Zhigang Jiang

本文探讨了生物遗传资源的元所有权与衍生所有权、生物遗传资源的修饰权概念。所谓生物遗传资源的元所有权即对生物遗传资源的载体——生物体、生殖细胞以及生物的遗传信息都拥有的所有权。生物遗传资源的衍生所有权即在一种生物遗传资源被商业修饰后, 那些对这种生物遗传资源拥有元所有权的国家仍拥有的部分所有权利。目前生物资源获取与惠益分享中的许多混乱是因为未能区分生物遗传资源的元所有权与衍生所有权。对任何生物遗传资源的修饰应本着“尊重生命”的原则, 这个原则与《生物多样性公约》序言中强调的“意识到生物多样性的内在价值”的观点一致, 生物多样性的内禀价值既包括物种的生存价值, 也包括物种生存价值的外延, 即物种个体的生存价值。行使生物遗传资源的修饰权还应本着“保存”、“善意修饰”、“预防恶意修饰”的掌握, 以及促进人类福祉的原则, 如增加农作物产量、降低有害物质含量、增加作物和家畜的抗病性、有益生态环境保护等等。人类自身的生物遗传资源的修饰权由人类的多数公意决定或国家行使。对任何生物遗传资源的修饰还应防止有意危害人类、野生生物的遗传结构稳定、甚至在实验室创造新的、自然界原本不存在的有害生物的恶意修饰。

I explored the ownership of biogenetic resources and put forward the concepts of meta-property right, property right and rights of modification of genetic resources. Meta-property right is the property right over the carrier of genetic resources— the animal and plant body, its gametes and genetic information. Derived property right is the partial right of the meta-property right owner of a genetic resource which has been genetically modified for commercial purposes. Much confusion in the acquisition and benefits sharing of genetic resources(ABS)are due to failure to define meta-property right and derived property right; We should pay attention to such problems. Any modification of genetic resource should obey the principle of “respect-ing life”, which matches with the statement “realizing the intrinsic value of biological diversity” of the Con-vention on Biological Diversity. Intrinsic value of biological diversity includes the survival value of species and its extension, the survival value of individuals of the species. Right of modification of the human genetic resource is to be decided by the majority of human society or the state. Modification right of genetic resource should be practiced according to the principles of “preservation”, “good-will” and “preventing ill-doing”. Modification of genetic resource should improve the well-being of human, such as increasing production of crops, reducing contents of harmful material, enhancing the disease resistance of crop and livestock, or bene-fit the environmental protection. Any modification of genetic resource should prevent such ill-will modifica-tion which harms the stabilization of genetic structure of human and wildlife, or creates a new harmful or-ganism.

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