生物多样性 ›› 2005, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (5): 451-461.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.050031

所属专题: 探索长江流域物种的濒危机制

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖流域麋鹿等哺乳动物濒危灭绝原因的分析及其对麋鹿重引入的启示

杨道德1, 2, 3, 蒋志刚1*, 马建章3, 胡慧建4, 李鹏飞5   

  1. 1 (中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100080)
    2 (中南林学院野生动植物保护研究所, 长沙 410004)
    3 (东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040)
    4 (华南濒危动物研究所, 广州 510260)
    5 (湖北石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区管理处, 石首 434400)
  • 收稿日期:2005-01-31 修回日期:2005-06-02 出版日期:2005-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚

Causes of endangerment or extinction of some mammals and its rele-vance to the reintroduction of Père David’s deer in the Dongting Lake drainage area

Daode Yang 1, 2, 3, Zhigang Jiang 1*, Jianzhang Ma 3, Huijian Hu 4, Pengfei Li 5   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080
    2 Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South Forestry University, Changsha 410004
    3 College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
    4 South China Institute of Endangered Wildlife, Guangzhou 510260
    5 Bureau of Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve, Shishou County 434400
  • Received:2005-01-31 Revised:2005-06-02 Online:2005-09-20
  • Contact: 蒋志刚

洞庭湖流域曾有亚洲象(Elephas maximus)、犀(Rhinoceros sp.)、麋鹿(Elaphurus davidianus)、川金丝猴(Rhinopithecus roxellana)、长臂猿(Hylobates sp.)、大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)、梅花鹿(Cervus nippon)、棕熊(Ursus arctos)等哺乳动物分布, 但受古气候、古地理以及人类活动的影响, 这些哺乳动物已在洞庭湖流域灭绝。这些哺乳动物的濒危和灭绝既受自然环境变化和灾变的影响, 也与物种本身生物学特性和人类活动有关, 尤其与人类捕杀和生境丧失有关。据古籍记载分析: 在洞庭湖流域, 亚洲象和犀于北宋末期灭绝或已南迁, 而野生麋鹿、大熊猫、川金丝猴、长臂猿、梅花鹿和棕熊等于19世纪末灭绝。根据我们对30个自然保护区或森林公园野生动物资源实地调查的结果, 在洞庭湖流域已记录到21种国家重点保护哺乳动物, 其中有5、6、10种哺乳动物分别处于“极危”、“濒危”、“易危”等级, 这表明物种濒危的过程仍在继续。导致这些现生哺乳动物濒危的主要原因是生境丧失、人类猎捕、环境污染等, 而人类活动干扰对现生濒危物种存活的影响越来越大。洞庭湖流域重引入麋鹿需采取人类协助生存策略: 提供足够的且受洪水影响小的适宜生境、保证稳定的奠基者种群数量、减少人为干扰、调控种群密度、实施社区共管和生计替代项目、加强疾病防治、完善保护措施、加大保护基金投入、加强生境监测和湿地恢复等。

Large mammals such as Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), rhino (Rhinoceros sp.), golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), gibbon (Hylobates sp.), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), sika deer(Cervus nippon), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) once lived in the Dongting Lake drainage area of the middle-lower reaches of Yangtze River. However, due to climate change, geomorphological change and human disturbance, these large mammals were extirpated from thearea. After humans settled in the Dongting Lake drainage area, human activity was the major cause of the ex-tinction of local mammalian fauna, especially human hunting, habitat loss to human settlements and land reclamation. Rhino and Asiatic elephant were extirpated or emigrated from the area during the late period of the Northern Song Dynasty while Père David's deer, golden monkey, gibbon, giant panda, sika deer and brown bear became extinct in the Dongting Lake Drainage Area in the late 19th century. According to our in-vestigations during past years, such a process of species extinction is still escalating. We recorded 21 national key protected mammals in the 30 nature reserves or forest parks in the Dongting Lake drainage area. Among those species, five species are critically endangered, six species are endangered and ten species are vulner-able. Primary causes that threaten the survival of mammals are habitat loss, environmental pollution, hunting, and competition for food or habitat among wild animals. Impacts of human activities on survival of presently endangered mammalian species are much greater than ever before. These threats should be considered when reintroducing Père David's deer to the Dongting Lake region. A suitable habitat with enough foods and space and no human disturbance, a healthy founder population under close monitoring, and active conservation measures based on community co-management will be prerequisites for successful re-establishment of the extinct Père David's deer in the Dongting Lake drainage area.

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