生物多样性

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四川无尾两栖类的繁殖模式

李成1, 2, 戴强1, 王跃招1*, 顾海军1, 2, 刘志君1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2005-01-28 修回日期:2005-05-28 出版日期:2005-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 王跃招

Reproductive modes in Sichuan anurans

Cheng Li1, 2, Qiang Dai1, Yuezhao Wang1*, Haijun Gu1, 2, Zhijun Liu1   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2005-01-28 Revised:2005-05-28 Online:2005-07-20
  • Contact: Yuezhao Wang

依据Duellman和Trueb(1986)的定义, 对四川无尾两栖动物的繁殖模式多样性进行了研究。研究结果如下: (1) 73种四川无尾类可以划分为2类共5种繁殖模式。水内产卵是比较原始的一类繁殖模式, 又分2种: 静水产卵(模式1)和流水产卵(模式2), 68种(93%)是在水内产卵; 水外产卵是较进化的一类繁殖模式, 又分3种: 卵产在近水塘的泥窝中(模式12), 卵泡产在近水域的土穴中(模式21)和卵泡产在近水域的树上或灌丛上(模式23), 仅5种(7%)在水外产卵。(2)模式1、12、21、23的两栖动物, 雌雄性的体型较模式2的物种为小, 产卵的数量大, 但卵径较小; 蝌蚪的生态表型均可归入静水型, 共同特点是蝌蚪体型小, 在静水中觅食, 生长发育快。模式2的两栖动物, 雌雄性的体型较大, 产卵的数量少, 而卵径较大; 蝌蚪的生态表型可归入流水型, 特点是蝌蚪体型大, 在流水中觅食, 生长发育慢。(3)水内产卵的两栖动物的窝卵能量投入方式可以分为两种: 静水产卵(模式1)的物种通过增加卵的数量来增加投入, 接近于r-选择物种; 流水产卵(模式2)的物种通过增大卵径来增加投入, 接近于k-选择物种; 是两种适应不同环境条件的的繁殖策略。

A total of 94 anuran species have been recorded in Sichuan Province, China. Among these species, there are five different reproductive modes belonging to two major categories according to Duellman & Trueb’s (1986) definition. The most common (93%, 68 of 73 species) site type of oviposition is free moving water, including both lentic water (mode 1) and lotic water (mode 2), which have been considered to be the primitive modes of reproduction in anurans. The deposition of eggs out of water includes terrestrial nests near water (mode 12), terrestrial foam nests in burrows or depressions (mode 21), and arboreal foam nests on trees and bushes over ponds or streams (mode 23). Species using modes 1, 12, 21, and 23 have smaller body sizes and deposit larger clutch sizes with smaller ovum diameter than those species using mode 2. Tadpoles of the former species inhabit non-flowing water systems and develop quickly; these tadpoles have small body sizes and short tails. Species using mode 2 have large body size, produce small clutch sizes with large ovum diameter. Their tadpoles inhabit flowing water systems and require a long development time; these tadpoles have large body size and long tails. The species using mode 1 exhibit a r-selected strategy by producing small-yolked eggs, investing less energy in each egg, and increasing clutch size. Conversely, the species us-ing mode 2 produce large-yolked eggs, invest more energy per egg, and show a reduction in the number of eggs, which is characteristic of a k-selected strategist.

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