生物多样性 ›› 2005, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (5): 445-450.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.050017

所属专题: 探索长江流域物种的濒危机制

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王朗自然保护区中大熊猫发情场的嗅味树和嗅味标记调查

刘国琪, 王昊*, 尹玉峰   

  1. 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2005-01-18 修回日期:2005-08-04 出版日期:2005-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 王 昊

Giant panda’s scent marks and scent mark trees in Wanglang National Nature Reserve, Sichuan

Guoqi Liu, Hao Wang*, Yufeng Yin   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2005-01-18 Revised:2005-08-04 Online:2005-09-20
  • Contact: Hao Wang

2004年2月底至4月中旬, 我们对四川省王朗国家自然保护区内大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)发情场的嗅味标记和嗅味树进行了调查, 以了解王朗大熊猫的发情时间和发情场位置, 为确定保护区内的重点保护区域和时间段提供证据, 同时增加对大熊猫生物学特性的了解。在海拔2500-3200 m间, 共对10条样带进行了36次调查, 测量并记录了山脊上1801株乔木的种类、高度、胸径和嗅味标记状况。调查共发现24株被大熊猫标记的嗅味树, 其中54%位于种群分布中心区域内两侧都有森林分布的山脊上, 70.8%分布于海拔2700-3000 m之间。嗅味树的平均胸径为37.2±17.8 cm (N=24), 其中92%为岷江冷杉(Abies fargesii var. faxoniana), 96%树皮粗糙或比较粗糙。嗅味标记中, 75%的嗅味标记为肛周腺分泌物, 标记中心的平均高度为51.8±15.6 cm (N=18), 25%为尿液, 尿液上沿的平均高度为64.5±14.5 cm (N=6)。此外, 从调查结果初步得知, 春季王朗最重要的大熊猫发情场所是长白沟-解放沟等区域, 这里是大熊猫种群的关键栖息地。目前保护区对这些关键栖息地加强了保护力度。

To improve the efficacy of population conservation of giant panda, and to further understanding of its life history and biology, we investigated the scent mark trees at giant panda breeding sites in Wanglang National Nature Reserve in the spring of 2004. Based on 36 surveys on 10 transects, we documented 24 scent mark trees. We recorded species, height, and DBH of 1801 trees on the ridges of possible panda breeding sites. We found 13 (54%) of the scent mark trees on ridges with forest on both sides and located in the center of panda habitat. Seventeen scent mark trees (71%) were distributed between the elevation of 2700-3000 m. Average DBH of scent mark trees was 37.2±17.8 cm, 22 (92%) trees were Abies fargesii var. faxoniana, and 23 (96%) had rough bark. Eighteen (75%) trees were marked with secretion of the crissal gland at an average height of 51.8±15.6 cm (center above the ground), and the remaining six were marked with urine at an average height of 64.5±14.5 cm (upper edge above ground). All the scent mark trees were found in Changbai Valley and Jiefang Valley. Therefore, these valleys are vital habitats of the panda population during the spring mating season. Based on our results, Wanglang Nature Reserve has enhanced giant panda protection by adding a new seasonal conservation station, improving the patrolling route, and increasing patrolling frequency.

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