生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    

中国自然保护区网络现状分析与优化设想

唐小平   

  1. (国家林业局调查规划设计院,北京100714)
  • 收稿日期:2004-10-13 修回日期:2004-12-29 出版日期:2005-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐小平

Analysis of the current situation of China′s nature reserve network and a draft plan for its optimization

Xiaoping Tang   

  1. Academy of Forest Inventory and Planning, State Forestry Administration
  • Received:2004-10-13 Revised:2004-12-29 Online:2005-01-20
  • Contact: Xiaoping Tang

我国的自然保护区已覆盖了近15%的国土面积。利用生物多样性保护的地理学方法(Geographic approach to protection of biological diverstiy,GAP)分析了自然保护区的布局和现状。结果表明:我国自然保护区已基本上形成了较完整的体系,但现有保护区网络布局有待进一步合理化:许多重要的、我国特有的或分布狭域的自然生态系统类型、一些珍稀濒危动植物的栖息地、许多稀有或具有重要战略价值的自然资源的产地等尚未被全部纳入保护体系内。作者建议未来自然保护区建设要从以保护物种为中心转向以保护生态系统为中心。应立足现有保护区网络,以扩建原有保护区为主;将具有重要意义的地方保护区升级为国家级保护区;加强与周边国家的合作,建立跨国自然保护区等。保护区规划要因地制宜、形式多样,如在西部应以建立大型自然保护区为主;中、东部人口稠密地区以建立中小型保护区和保护点为主;在候鸟越冬、繁殖与停歇地,可建立季节性保护区等。

China′s nature reserves already cover a total of almost 15% of the area of the country. We examined the data on the actual situation of nature reserves using the method of GAP analysis (geographic approach to protection of biological diversity). The result is as follows: China′s nature reserves have formed a comparatively integrated system of protection; however, the nature reserve network lacks a suitable overall arrangement. Some important or endemic ecosystems, the habitats of some endangered animals and plants, and the provenances of some rare and important resources, are not included in the reserves yet. We suggest that the focus should shift to the conservation of whole ecosystems instead of specific species. We suggest to enlarge the areas of existing nature reserves, upgrade some important local nature reserves to national grade, and set up some trans-boundary reserves together with neighbouring countries. According to different situation, the reserve may be established in diverse forms, such as seasonal reserves for migrant birds, large reserves in western China, and small reserves or protected spots in thickly populated eastern areas.

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