生物多样性 ›› 2005, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 51-57.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.040141

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

云南省香格里拉大峡谷藏族神山在自然保护中的意义

邹莉1, 2, 3, 谢宗强1, 欧晓昆2   

  1. 1(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室,北京100093)
    2 (云南大学生态学与地植物学研究所,昆明 650091)
    3 (中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039)
  • 收稿日期:2004-09-18 修回日期:2004-12-06 出版日期:2005-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 谢宗强

Significance of Tibetan sacred hills in nature conservation of Shangri-La Gorge, Yunnan

Li Zou1, 2, 3, Zongqiang Xie1*, Xiaokun Ou2   

  1. 1 Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 Institute of Ecology and Geobotany,yunnan University,kunming 650091
    3 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039
  • Received:2004-09-18 Revised:2004-12-06 Online:2005-01-20
  • Contact: Zongqiang Xie

位于云南省西北部迪庆藏族自治州境内的香格里拉大峡谷拥有独特的自然人文景观和丰富的生物多样性。藏族作为当地最重要的原住民族,他们的文化对当地的自然环境具有重要的影响。为了解藏族传统文化中的神山崇拜对香格里拉大峡谷地区自然环境的影响,本文应用民族生态学、植物生态学和文化人类学的研究方法,结合文献资料的分析,对香格里拉大峡谷的藏族神山进行了调查和研究,并对处于不同保护状态下(神山与非神山)的两个典型植物群落即高山松(Pinus densata)群落和云南黄果冷杉(Abies ernestii var. salouenensis)群落进行了比较。结果显示,在相同的样地面积内(20 m×20 m),神山植物群落在物种数量(20,14)和群落盖度(100%,85%)方面都明显高于非神山植物群落(11,2;70%,60%)。结合入户调查资料,发现广泛分布于香格里拉大峡谷的藏族神山构成了一个“自下而上”的乡土保护体系,它不仅在保护生物多样性、维护当地脆弱的生态环境等方面发挥着重要的作用,而且还可以提供多种非林产品,实现多种生态功能。文章探讨了发挥乡土保护体系的保护功效及应用传统文化知识以促进自然保护的重要性,建议应当尊重和保护原住民的传统文化,发掘其中优秀的自然保护知识和经验,引导其发挥更加有效的自然保护功能,使民族传统保护体系成为现代自然保护体系的有力补充。

Shangri-La Gorge, located in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Northwest Yunnan, has a unique landscape and is abundant in biodiversity. As the dominant indigenous culture, Tibetan culture has a significant influence on the local natural environment. In order to evaluate the role of the Tibetan sacred hills in nature conservation, we carried out an extensive survey through the methods of ethno-ecology, plant ecology and cultural anthropology. In the field survey, two representative forest communities (Pinus densata community and Abies ernestii var.salouenensis community) at different locations (sacred hills and ordinary hills) were selected as samples. A comparison between samples of sacred forest and samples of ordinary forest was made to evaluate their plant species diversity. The results showed that total species number and community coverage in the sacred grove communities were 20 and 100% in Pinus densata community, 14 and 85% in Abies ernestii var.salouenenensis community, respectively, which were higher than those in ordinary forest (11 and 70%, 12 and 60%, respectively). Sacred hills constitute a “bottom-up” conservation system. This system plays an important role in local biodiversity conservation and ecological balance in Shangri-La Gorge. Furthermore, it provides different kinds of non-timber forest products and has various ecological functions. We discuss the importance of applying traditional knowledge and vernacular conservation systems to promote nature conservation. In addition, based on the research on Tibetan sacred hills, we suggest that traditional knowledge should be respected and conserved. Applying indigenous knowledge to promote nature conservation would be an effective way to achieve win-win results between local community development and biodiversity protection. To supplement the modern nature conservation system, more efforts should be made to promote the vernacular conservation system, which has been proved to be more effective.

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