生物多样性

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云南松林野生食用菌物种多样性及保护对策

于富强1,2,刘培贵1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院昆明植物研究所,昆明 650204)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039)
  • 收稿日期:2004-09-06 修回日期:2004-12-12 出版日期:2005-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 刘培贵

Species diversity of wild edible mushrooms from Pinus yunnanensis forests and conservation strategies

Fuqiang Yu1,2, Peigui Liu1*   

  1. 1 Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204
    2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039
  • Received:2004-09-06 Revised:2004-12-12 Online:2005-01-20
  • Contact: Peigui Liu

近年来,随着野生食用菌的商业化采收规模急剧扩大,云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)林下野生食用菌尤其是野生贸易真菌的种类和产量呈逐年下降趋势。作者于2000-2004年夏,对滇中及其邻近地区云南松林下野生食用菌的资源状况进行了调查研究。作者共采集、鉴定标本457号,并对他人采自云南松林下的152号馆藏标本也进行了重新鉴定,共统计野生食用菌27科39属147种(含变种、变型);同时对市场上出售的采自云南松林下的野生食用菌类群也进行了调查统计,共收集、鉴定标本167号,计21科33属97种(含变种、变型)。调查结果显示,目前记录云南松林产野生食用菌共计27科43属211种(含变种、变型),野生贸易真菌有23科35属111种(含变种、变型)。其中红菇科(Russulaceae)的种数最多,包括红菇属(Russula)32种,乳菇属(Lactarius)17种,分别占总种数的15.17%和8.06%;牛肝菌科(Boletaceae)占第二位,有41种,占总种数的19.43%。其次是口蘑科(Tricholomataceae)17种,占总种数的8.06%。丛枝瑚菌科(Ramariaceae)有11种,乳牛肝菌科(Suillaceae)11种,鸡油菌科(Cantharellaceae)9种,三者的种数占总种数的百分比分别为5.21%、5.21%和4.27%。在这些类群当中,红菇属、牛肝菌属(Boletus)、乳菇属、乳牛肝菌属(Suillus)、枝瑚菌属(Ramaria)、口蘑属(Tricholoma)、鸡油菌属(Cantharellus)和革菌属(Thelephora)的30余种真菌为云南市场上最为常见的野生贸易类群,约占云南优势野生贸易真菌种数的47.50%。作者呼吁立即采取行之有效的措施保护和管理这些珍贵的自然资源,并加强研究,以期达到持续利用之目的。

From 2000 to 2004, we studied wild edible mushrooms collected from forests of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis), a dominant vegetation in central Yunnan and adjacent regions. A total of 776 mushroom collections were obtained and identified, including 457 from the field investigation of the authors, 167 from mushroom markets, and 152 from specimens in the Herbarium of Cryptogams, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In total, 211 taxa belonging to 43 genera of 27 families were identified, among which 111 taxa in 35 genera of 23 families were commercial mushrooms traded in the local markets. Of these commercial mushrooms, 23.23% belonged to Russulaceae, comprising 15.17% (32 species) from the genus Russula and 8.06% (17 species) from the genus Lactarius. Boletaceae ranked the second in species richness and made up 19.43% (41 species) of the total species. Seventeen species found were from the family Tricholomataceae, 11 from Ramariaceae and Suillaceae, and 9 from Cantharellaceae, sharing 8.06%, 5.21%, 5.21% and 4.27% of the total species, respectively.More than 30 species from the genera Russula, Boletus, Lactarius, Ramaria, Suillus, Tricholoma, Cantharellus, and Thelephora made up 47.50% of the total wild commercial mushroom species in the Yunnan local markets. In recent years, increasing demand for wild edible mushrooms has resulted in large-scale commercial harvesting, which has led to a decline of mushroom species. We appeal for protecting these valuable fungal resources and their habitats.

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