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中国受胁鸟类的分布与现状分析

赵洪峰1, 4,高学斌1,2*,雷富民1**,刘昕扬 3,郑宁 3,尹祚华1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院动物研究所,北京100080)
    2 (陕西省动物研究所,西安 710032)
    3 (首都师范大学,北京 100037)
    4(中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039)
  • 收稿日期:2004-06-15 修回日期:2004-12-22 出版日期:2005-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 雷富民

On the status and distribution of threatened birds of China

Hongfeng Zhao1, 4, Xuebin Gao1, 2*, Fumin Lei1**, Xinyang Liu3, Ning Zheng3, Zuohua Yin1   

  1. 1 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080
    2 Shanxi Institute of Zoology,Xi'an 710032
    3 Capital Normal University,Beijing 100037
    4 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039
  • Received:2004-06-15 Revised:2004-12-22 Online:2005-01-20
  • Contact: Fumin Lei

参照《Threatened Birds of Asia》(《亚洲受胁鸟类红皮书》),将其中记载的在中国有分布的物种与《中国濒危动物红皮书·鸟类》的物种进行比较。两者的物种组成有明显差异,仅69种鸟同时出现在两个红皮书中;《亚洲受胁鸟类红皮书》中雀形目鸟类占比例最大,而《中国濒危动物红皮书·鸟类》中鸡形目鸟类占比例最大。两个红皮书中的受胁鸟类均以森林、湿地和灌丛为主要栖息生境,而导致物种受胁的主要原因是人为干扰所造成的栖息地破坏。在地理分布方面,应用Arcview 3.2的数据处理与叠加功能,发现西南山地亚区、东部丘陵平原亚区和黄淮平原亚区以及台湾亚区受胁鸟类物种丰富度较高,其中留鸟在西南山地亚区及其周边地区相对集中,迁徙鸟在东部丘陵平原亚区及其周边地区相对集中。在保护方面,中国的显著重要鸟区中有51个是在自然保护区范围内,但还有6个尚未建立保护区,建议予以保护和重视。作者认为西南山地和台湾、海南地区的受胁鸟类面临更大的灭绝威胁,而恢复和重建退化的生态系统是保护鸟类的重要前提。

We compared bird species in the China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals (Aves) and Chinese bird species in the Threatened Birds of Asia. Species composition was different in the two red data books, and only 69 species were listed in both. Most bird species listed in the two books live in forest, wetlands and scrub. We established a geographical database of threatened birds and used Arcview (3.2) software to analyze their zoogeographical patterns. We find threatened birds are mainly distributed in the Southwest Mountain subregion, East Hillock-Plain subregion, Huanghuai Plain subregion, and Taiwan subregion. Threatened resident birds occur more frequently in the Southwest Mountain subregion and adjacent areas, and threatened migratory birds in the East Hillock-Plain subregion and adjacent areas. Of the 57 outstanding important bird areas identified by BirdLife International in China, 51 are within protected areas, whereas another 6 are not. We suggest much attention should be paid to the six areas. Based on IUCN criteria of causes of threats, the foremost cause of bird endangerment is human-induced habitat loss and degradation. We conclude that the threatened birds inhabiting mountain areas in southwestern China, Taiwan and Hainan Island, where ecosystems are more vulnerable, are facing more threats.

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