生物多样性 ›› 2005, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 43-50.doi: 10.1360/biodiv.040083

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

茂兰喀斯特森林林隙的植物多样性与更新

龙翠玲1, 2, 余世孝1*, 熊志斌3, 魏鲁明3   

  1. 1 (中山大学生命科学学院,广州 510275)
    2 (贵州师范大学资源与环境学系,贵阳 550001)
    3 (贵州省茂兰国家级自然保护区管理局,荔波 558400)
  • 收稿日期:2004-06-03 修回日期:2004-12-01 出版日期:2005-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 余世孝

Species diversity and regeneration in forest gaps of the Karst forest in Maolan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province

Cuiling Long1, 2, Shixiao Yu1*, Zhibin Xiong3, Luming Wei3   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275
    2 Department of Resources and Enivironment Science,Guizhou Normal University,Guiyang 550001
    3 Management Department of Maolan National Nature Reserve,Libo,Guizhou 558400
  • Received:2004-06-03 Revised:2004-12-01 Online:2005-01-20
  • Contact: Shixiao Yu

喀斯特森林是一类特殊的森林生态系统,蕴藏着丰富的生物多样性。以贵州茂兰喀斯特森林为研究对象,比较分析了林隙和非林隙林分中主要树种的数量特征以及不同发育阶段林隙物种多样性和生活型构成的变化规律。结果如下:(1)林隙中的树种组成主要有云贵鹅耳枥(Carpinus pubescens)、圆叶乌桕(Sapium rotundifolium)、圆果化香(Platycarya longipes)、黄连木(Pistacia chinensis)、朴树(Celtis sinensis)等。非林隙林分中的树种组成主要有青冈(Quercus glauca)、翅荚香槐(Cladrastis platycarpa)、轮叶木姜子(Litsea verticillata)、椤木石楠(Photinia davidsoniae)、狭叶润楠(Machilus rehderi)等。依照它们在林隙内外重要值的差异可将其划分为3种类型:一是对林隙更新反应不显著的物种,一般选择在林下更新,多数常绿大乔木树种属于此类型;二是对林隙有显著的正更新反应的物种,一般需依靠林隙繁殖更新,多数落叶大乔木和灌木树种属于此类型;三是对林隙反应不敏感的物种,在林隙和林下均能更新,多数林下小乔木种类属于此类型。(2)林隙各阶段物种多样性的顺序为:中期林隙(15-30年)>早期林隙(小于15年)>晚期林隙(30年以上)>非林隙,其中中期林隙阶段是物种多样性维持的重要时期。(3)早期林隙阶段常绿树种的物种数少于落叶树种;中期林隙阶段两类树种的丰富度都有大幅度增加,但落叶树种比常绿树种增幅更大;晚期林隙阶段常绿树种继续增多,而落叶树种则有明显下降趋势。(4)早期和中期林隙阶段,以灌木种类占优势,乔木所占比例介于灌木和草本之间;晚期林隙阶段,灌木种类迅速减少,而乔木的比例则增加。随着林隙的发育, 草本植物减少,而藤本植物则增加。研究结果进一步表明,林隙的存在提高了茂兰喀斯特森林的物种多样性,随着林隙的发育,群落结构趋于稳定。

Karst forest is a special forest ecosystem with rich biodiversity. In the Karst forest in Maolan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province, we investigated the quantitative characteristics of major tree species in forest gaps and non-gap stands, and the changes in species diversity and life forms during various gap phases. Our result showed that the forest gap stands were dominated by species such as Carpinus pubescens, Sapium rotundifolium, Platycarya longipes, Pistacia chinensis, and Celtis sinensis, whereas non-gap stands were dominated by Quercus glauca, Cladrastis platycarpa, Litsea verticillata, Photinia davidsoniae, and Machilus rehderi.These trees could be classified into three groups: negative response, positive response, and non sensitive. Most evergreen tree species regenerated in the non-gap stands; most deciduous tree and shrub species regenerated in the gap stands; and most understory small trees regenerated in both gap and non-gap stands. The species diversity in different gap phases ranked as follows: mid phase gaps (15-30 yr) > early phase gaps (<15 yr) > late phase gaps (>30 yr)> non-gap stands. Species diversity in gap stands was higher than that in non-gap stands, and the mid phase gap was a key period for maintaining species diversity. In the early gap phase, the species number of evergreen trees was less than deciduous trees. In the middle gap phase, both evergreen and deciduous tree species increased markedly, but deciduous species number increased more. In the late gap phase, evergreen trees species number continued to increase but deciduous tree species number decreased obviously. Shrubs dominated the stands during the early and middle gap phases, whereas trees dominated during the late gap phase. We conclude that the regeneration of gaps can enhance species richness and diversity in the Karst forest. Through the development of gaps, the structure of the plant community tends to be more stable.

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