Soil microbes collected from Great Wall Station area in Antarctica were studied. Results showed thatthe total number of ammonification bacteria was 10^{4}~10^{6} cells/per gram of soil. Ammonification bacteria belong to 7 genera, *Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium,Arthrobacter. *The total number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was 10^{5}~10^{7} cells/g,which included only *Azotobacter*. The total number of nitrobacteria was 10^{4} cells/g,and this nitrobacteria included *Nitrobacter *and *Nitrococcus*. The total number of fungi was 10^{3} cells/g, such fungi belong to 5 genera,*Penicillium*,*Chrysosporium , Cladosporium, Aspergillus *and *Eurotium*. The total number of denitrifying bacteria was10^{2}~ 10^{4} cells/g, This bacteria were *Pseudomonas,Bacillus *and *Micrococcus*. Actinomycete were also identified *Streptomyces, Micromonospora *and *Nocardia*. The appearing rate of psychrophilic miorobes(growing below 12℃) are 42% for *Pseudomonas*, 35% for *Bacillus*, 31%for *Mcrococcus*, 27% for *Arthrobacter*, 58% for *Penicillium*, 54% for *Cladosporium*, 81% for *Nitrobacter *and 88% for *Azotobacter*; denitrifying bacteria are 58% for *Pseudomonas *and 38% for *Bacillus*. The relationship between soilmicrobes and total C and N of soil samples, and the ecological effect of soil microbes participating nitrogen cycle in this area were also discussed.