Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (3): 258-265.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017312

• Original Papers:Ecosystem Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Ecosystem status and health assessment of Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve

Sun Youfang1, 2, 3, 4, Lei Xinming1, 2, *(), Lian Jiansheng1, 2, Yang Jianhui1, 2, Wu Yingying1, 3, 5, Huang Hui1, 2, 4, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301
    2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, Guangzhou 510301
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Tropical Marine Biological Research Station in Hainan, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya, Hainan 572000
    5 Beijing Advanced Sciences and Innovation Centre, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101407
  • Received:2017-11-21 Accepted:2018-01-10 Online:2018-05-05
  • Lei Xinming,Huang Hui E-mail:leixm@scsio.ac.cn;huanghui@scsio.ac.cn

To assess the health of Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve (SCRNNR), we surveyed corals, reef fish, and macrobenthos at three stations (Dongdao, Luhuitou, Dadonghai). We compared these data with historical data together with expert consultations, and identified first and second class indices of coral reef ecosystem health and their weights (coral reef ecosystem health assessment comprehensive index method). We recorded 37 species of hermatypic corals, and three species of soft corals, averaging 14.31% and 0.19% of the benthic cover, respectively. The highest cover of hermatypic corals was 21.58% at Luhuitou. Thirty-six species of coral reef fishes belonging to 14 families and 28 genera were recorded, of which Pomacentridae was the dominant family. Density of reef fishes was highest at 4 m depth on Luhuitou reef reaching up to 154/300 m2. Corallivorous snail and lobsters were rarely observed while corallivorous snails, Drupella, were common at all sites. Our results indicate that the health status of Dongdao, Luhuitou, Dadonghai coral reef ecosystems are “general”. We conclude that this survey approach provides a feasible and practical method for scientific research and management departments to assess the health status of coral reef ecosystems.

Key words: coral reef ecosystem, health assessment, ecological status, Sanya

Fig. 1

Station distribution in Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve"

Table 1

Criterion of coral reef ecosystem health assessment"

一级指标
First
assessment index
二级指标
Second assessment index
单位
Unit
权重
Weight
分级标准 Criterion
造礁珊瑚
Hermatypic coral
造礁珊瑚覆盖率 Coverage rates of hermatypic corals % 0.3 ≤ 15 15-35 ≥ 35
造礁珊瑚种类数 Species number of hermatypic corals - 0.2 ≤ 10 10-20 ≥ 20
半年内死亡造礁珊瑚覆盖率
Coverage rates of dead hermatypic corals in half-year
% 0.05 ≥ 10 2-10 ≤ 2
块状造礁珊瑚占比 Coverage rates of massive hermatypic corals % 0.02 ≥ 90 50-90 ≤ 50
鹿角珊瑚占比 Coverage rates of Acropora corals % 0.2 ≤ 10 10-20 ≥ 20
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数 Shannon-Wiener diversity index - 0.03 0-0.9 0.9-2.4 ≥ 2.4
造礁珊瑚补充量 Recruitment of hermatypic corals 个/m2 0.2 ≤ 5 5-20 ≥ 20
珊瑚礁鱼类
Coral reef fishes
珊瑚礁鱼类种类数 Species number of coral reef fishes - 0.35 ≤ 5 5-20 ≥ 20
珊瑚礁鱼类密度 Density of coral reef fishes 个/300 m2 0.25 ≤ 50 50-100 ≥ 100
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数 Shannon-Wiener diversity index - 0.1 0-0.9 0.9-2.4 ≥ 2.4
10 cm以上珊瑚礁鱼类占比 Coverage rates of coral reef fishes over 10 cm % 0.2 ≤ 1 1-3 ≥ 3
蝴蝶鱼 Butterflyfish 0.1 ≤ 2 2-5 ≥ 5
大型底栖动物
Macrobenthos
大型藻类与造礁珊瑚比值 The ratio of macroalgae to hermatypic coral - 0.3 ≥ 30 5-30 ≤ 5
长棘海星 Crown-of-thorns starfish 0.1 ≥ 5 0-5 0
核果螺 Corallivorous snail 0.1 ≥ 50 10-50 ≤ 10
海胆 Sea urchin 0.2 ≤ 5 5-20 ≥ 20
海参 Sea cucumber 0.05 ≤ 5 5-20 ≥ 20
砗磲 Giant clam 0.2 ≤ 1 1-5 ≥ 5
龙虾 Lobster 0.05 0 1-2 ≥ 2
赋值 Assignment 10 50 100

Table 2

Coverage rates of corals of three sampling stations in Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve"

东岛 Dongdao 鹿回头 Luhuitou 大东海 Dadonghai
6 m 3 m 平均 Average 4 m 2 m 平均 Average 6 m 3 m 平均 Average
造礁珊瑚覆盖率
Coverage rates of hermatypic corals (%)
19.67 10.33 15.00 26.50 16.67 21.58 3.00 9.67 6.33
软珊瑚覆盖率 Coverage rates of soft corals (%) 0.33 0 0.17 0.50 0 0.25 0.33 0 0.17
珊瑚覆盖率 Coverage rates of corals (%) 20.00 10.33 15.17 27.00 16.67 21.83 3.33 9.67 6.50

Table 3

Benthic condition in Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve"

东岛 Dongdao 鹿回头 Luhuitou 大东海 Dadonghai
鹿角珊瑚占比 Coverage rates of Acropora corals (%) 0 1.17 1.00
珊瑚占比 Coverage rates of corals (%) 15.17 21.83 6.50
半年内死亡珊瑚占比 Coverage rates of dead corals in half-year (%) 21.50 7.00 46.83
非生物物质占比 Coverage rates of abiotic substances (%) 39.58 53.08 19.83
大型藻类占比 Coverage rates of macroalgae (%) 23.67 17.50 25.83
块状造礁珊瑚占比 Coverage rates of massive hermatypic corals (%) 14.33 14.75 1.17
其他生物占比 Coverage rates of other creature (%) 0.08 0.58 0

Table 4

Dominant species and dominance indices of macrobenthos in coral reefs of three sampling stations in Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve"

总调查区 Survey area 东岛 Dongdao 鹿回头 Luhuitou 大东海 Dadonghai
核果螺 Corallivorous snail 0.124 0.1688 0.1322 0.059
海百合 Crinoid 0.168 0.2776 0.0771 0.113
管虫 Tubeworms 0.078 0.1751 - 0.022
马蹄螺 Top-snails - 0.0268 - -
海绵 Sponge - 0.0521 - -
寄居蟹 Hermit crab 0.077 0.0615 0.0396 0.128
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