Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1105-1113.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017134

• Original Papers: Plant Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Assessment of the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects: a case study on Shapotou National Nature Reserve

Fangzheng Liu1, Peng Zhang2, Yubo Zhang1, Bing Chen1, Jinhong Du1, Wei Wang1, *(), Junsheng Li1   

  1. 1 Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000
  • Received:2017-05-04 Accepted:2017-08-06 Online:2018-05-05
  • Wang Wei

It has been shown that the established nature reserves will affect the surrounding ecological environment, that is, the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves. At present, the ecological environment of the surrounding areas of some nature reserves has changed greatly, especially in the temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects. To study the space neighborhood effect on nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes of artificial objects will do significant help to maintain the survival and safety of nature reserve and its protected objects. To analyze the variation intervals of the space neighborhood effect and the distance scale, and to identify the driving factors, we chose Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve as a case study. We divided the study area within a range of 20 km around the nature reserve, extracted the artificial objects from the remote image analysis between 1990 and 2015, and used Mann-Kendall trend analysis and driving factor correlation test analysis, to assess the space neighborhood effect of nature reserves based on temporal and spatial changes in artificial objects. Results showed that the areas and patterns of artificial objects were expanding, which meant the impacts of human activities were increasing over time. In addition, the space neighborhood effect was most evident with increases in time and decreases in the distance scale. Trends in the space neighborhood effect were divided into three descending intervals, and the driving factors differed. In the first interval (1-5 km), the trend was occasionally significant, and shelter forest was the main driving factor. In the second interval (6-10 km), significance of the descending trend could be observed, and building became the driving factor. Lastly, the driving factor was farming, and a very significant descending trend was found in the third interval (11-20 km). Since the establishment of the Ningxia Shapotou National Nature Reserve, its surrounding land-use changes are significantly influenced by human activities, which needs attention.

Key words: nature reserves, space neighborhood effect, spillover, leakage, trend analysis

Fig. 1

The location of the study area"

Fig. 2

Interpretation result of study area between 1990 and 2015"

Table 1

Land use type and area (ha) for each period"

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
防护林 Shelter forest 17,498 10,536 13,592 23,990 21,878 22,200
天然草地 Natural grassland 38,971 41,608 34,462 34,742 35,026 38,393
农田 Farm 21,027 24,132 22,315 16,619 24,738 25,056
荒漠 Desert 224,391 225,600 230,718 224,165 213,015 203,397
河流 River 1,868 1,858 1,858 1,858 1,858 1,858
湖泊 Lake 195 195 885 1,246 1,592 1,479
城镇用地 Building 712 733 832 2,041 6,512 9,202
能源用地 Solar energy 0 0 0 0 42 3,076
总计 Total 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661 304,661

Fig. 3

The trend of space neighborhood effect of artificial objects of study area between 1990 and 2015"

Table 2

Mann-Kendall trend Z test results on space neighborhood effect of artificial objects"

距离尺度 Distance scale (km) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
第一区间 1st interval 1-5 -0.73 -0.73 -1.96 -2.20* -1.47 -2.20*
第二区间 2nd interval 6-10 -2.20* -1.96 -1.96 -1.96 -2.20* -2.20*
第三区间 3rd interval 11-20 -3.22** -3.22** -3.22** -3.22** -3.58** -3.58**

Table 3

The results of the correlation analysis of the driving factors of space neighborhood effect"

1990 1995 2000
Shelter forest
Shelter forest
Shelter forest
第一区间 1st interval 0.855 -0.527 0.767 0.713 -0.418 0.773 0.848 -0.381 0.955*
第二区间 2nd interval 0.949* 0.871 0.904* 0.996** 0.939* 0.993** 0.645 0.907* 0.994**
第三区间 3rd interval 0.449 0.936** -0.013 0.682* 0.977** -0.399 0.887** 0.713* -0.273
全区间 Entire interval 0.959** 0.594** 0.635** 0.786** 0.756** 0.606** 0.869** 0.720** 0.689**
2005 2010 2015
Shelter forest
Shelter forest
Solar energy
Shelter forest
Solar energy
1st interval
0.993** -0.620 0.649 0.638 -0.404 0.647 0.973** 0.962** 0.110 0.186 -0.583
2nd interval
0.602 0.892* 0.473 0.957* 0.530 0.948* - 0.987** -0.038 0.891* 0.901*
3rd interval
0.846** 0.729* - 0.618 0.912** 0.073 - 0.794** 0.903** 0.751* 0.041
Entire interval
0.985** 0.538* 0.610** 0.959** 0.360 0.662** 0.490* 0.976** 0.533* 0.489* 0.830**
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