生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (6): 683-688.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017122

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    

自然杂交与生物多样性保护

商辉, 严岳鸿*()   

  1. 上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-16 接受日期:2017-06-10 出版日期:2017-06-20 发布日期:2017-07-10
  • 通讯作者: 严岳鸿
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31370234)和上海市绿化和市容管理局科技攻关项目(G152419和G162401)

Natural hybridization and biodiversity conservation

Hui Shang, Yuehong Yan*()   

  1. Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602
  • Received:2017-04-16 Accepted:2017-06-10 Online:2017-06-20 Published:2017-07-10
  • Contact: Yan Yuehong

摘要:

物种之间的杂交事件在自然界中时常发生, 虽然大部分自然杂交会成为进化的盲端而被淘汰, 但仍有一部分自然杂交在物种形成过程中起到很重要的作用。随着对自然杂交认识的深入, 人们对其是否具有保护价值存在着较大的争议。本文从遗传多样性、物种多样性和生态系统多样性三个方面综述了自然杂交在物种进化和生态系统中的作用, 认为并不是所有杂交都存在着物种逆转的危险, 一些杂交事件可以增加生物多样性, 提高物种的环境适应性。同时, 我们结合近年来自然杂交的研究案例, 提出自然杂交的保护原则: 对父母本没有威胁, 同时有助于提高生物多样性和环境适应性的自然杂交应该予以保护。希望该建议为国家制定物种保护法律法规和编制红色名录提供参考。

关键词: 自然杂交, 生物多样性, 保护生物学, 红色名录

Abstract:

Hybridization occurs commonly in nature. Due to decreasing fitness, a large number of hybridized offspring might be eliminated in natural conditions, but many hybridization/introgression events can be important drivers of speciation. With advances in modern molecular genotyping methods, the mechanisms of hybridization and their impacts on speciation are becoming better understood. However, for taxa with hybridized origins, the question of whether the germplasm needs to be conserved presents many viewpoints. Here, we comprehensively review the conservation value of hybrids over three aspects (including genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity) to pronounce the significant roles in evolution and ecology. A large number of cases indicate that not all hybridization will lead to genetic assimilation by hybridization swamping. It can also boost genetic diversity and increase fitness and adaptability. Based on recent research on natural hybridization, we propose a principle for conservation of hybridized originated taxa if the existing hybridized taxon does not threaten the parental species, and its unique germplasm can contribute to genetic and adaptive capacity. In such a situation, the conservation of hybridized taxa should be taken into consideration. We hope this proposal could supplement a reference to reinforce conservation policy and species red listing.

Key words: natural hybridization, biodiversity, conservation biology, species red list