生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (9): 1045-1055.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016062

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基于生物量的大型底栖动物功能摄食群结构 及生态质量评价

蔡文倩, 刘静, 周娟, 夏阳, 刘录三*()   

  1. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护河口与海岸带环境重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 出版日期:2016-09-20 发布日期:2016-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 刘录三
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41406160)和国家环保公益性行业专项(201309007)

Composition of macrozoobenthos functional feeding groups and assessment of ecological quality using the feeding evenness index calculated from biomass data

Wenqian Cai, Jing Liu, Juan Zhou, Yang Xia, Lusan Liu*()   

  1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Estuary and Coastal Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Online:2016-09-20 Published:2016-10-09
  • Contact: Liu Lusan

摘要:

基于2011年5月和9月2个航次获取的生物及环境数据, 分析了渤海湾大型底栖动物的功能摄食群组成, 并首次利用以生物量构建的摄食均匀度指数(the feeding evenness index, bjFD)和多元AZTI海洋生物指数(multivariate-biomass AZTI marine biotic index, M-bAMBI)对渤海湾生态质量进行评价。结果表明, 渤海湾大型底栖动物功能群由4类组成, 分别是肉食者、碎屑食者、浮游生物食者和杂食者, 未发现植食者。2个航次均以浮游生物食者和杂食者的生物量最高, 碎屑食者最低。聚类分析结果表明海河口内大型底栖动物群落功能摄食群组成与其他区域明显不同。两个航次均以海河口的重金属潜在生态风险指数值(risk index, RI)较低, 且5月航次该指数沿河口向外有明显的空间分布梯度。bjFD平均值为0.28, 指示研究区大部分区域生态质量较差, 其中低值区集中在海河口、北塘口及其附近海域, 与风险指数值的低值区基本吻合。BEST分析表明温度、盐度、重金属及营养盐等是影响bjFD变化的主要环境因子。与M-bAMBI相比, bjFD对海河口及北塘口较差的环境质量状况更为敏感。总体上, bjFD适用于评价渤海湾的生态质量。

关键词: 大型底栖动物群落, 功能摄食群, 生物量, 摄食均匀度指数, 多元AZTI海洋生物指数, 渤海湾

Abstract:

Based on biological and environmental materials collected during May and September of 2011, the composition of macrozoobenthos functional feeding groups was analyzed. Meanwhile, the feeding evenness index calculated from biomass data, together with M-bAMBI erected using biomass data, were used to assess the ecological quality of Bohai Bay for the first time. Results showed that the macrozoobenthos community was divided into five feeding groups, including a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE) and detritivorous group (DE). Except for group HE, the other four groups were all sampled in the study area. Groups PL and OM displayed the greatest percentages of community average biomass in both voyages and the group DE displayed the smallest percentage. Cluster analysis indicated that the composition of the macrozoobenthos feeding group in the Haihe Estuary was significantly different from other areas. The risk index (RI) values were relatively lower in the Haihe Estuary than the other areas in the study region. Meanwhile, an obvious spatial gradient was observed along the Haihe estuary towards the offshore area during May 2011. The average feeding evenness index value was 0.28 indicating poor ecological quality in most study areas. In addition, the lower bjFD values were found in the Haihe Estuary, Beitang outlet and their surrounding areas, which was similar to the RI spatial pattern. BEST analysis indicated that temperature, salinity, heavy metals, and nutrients were the main environmental factors affecting the feeding evenness index. Compared with the M-bAMBI, bjFD was more sensitive to the poor environmental quality status of the Haihe Estuary and Beitang outlet. In general, bjFD could be used to evaluate the ecological quality of Bohai Bay.

Key words: macrozoobenthos community, functional feeding groups, biomass, bjFD, M-bAMBI, Bohai Bay