生物多样性

• •    

澜沧江–湄公河中上游淡水鱼类多样性

李雪晴, 孙赫英, 何德奎, 陈毅峰   

  1. 中国科学院水生生物研究所
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-13 修回日期:2019-08-15 出版日期:2019-10-14
  • 通讯作者: 何德奎

Freshwater fish diversity in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River

Xueqing Li, Heying Sun, Dekui He, Yifeng Chen   

  1. Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Received:2019-06-13 Revised:2019-08-15 Online:2019-10-14
  • Contact: Dekui He

澜沧江–湄公河是东南亚最大的河流,也是世界上淡水生物多样性最高的三大河流之一。由于特殊的地理位置和国际河流属性,对澜沧江–湄公河淡水鱼类的多样性现状缺乏系统的认识。本文在近二十年调查的基础上,系统整理了澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个支流或亚流域的淡水鱼类物种名录,在此基础上对其种类组成和分布进行了分析,并利用分类学多样性指数对澜沧江–湄公河中上游流域的物种多样性进行了评估。结果表明,澜沧江–湄公河中上游共记录了淡水鱼类745种,分属于2纲17目63科229属,其中鲤形目鱼类451种,占物种数的60.5%。分类学多样性指数显示,从源头到中游,淡水鱼类在分类阶元上的分布越来越均匀,亲缘关系越来越远,分类多样性越来越大。聚类分析(CA)和多维尺度分析(MDS)表明,当Jaccard相似性系数为15.9时,澜沧江–湄公河中上游32个亚流域可以分为源区、上游和中游3组;相似性分析(ANOSIM)结果显示,各组之间淡水鱼类组成差异显著(R = 0.903,P = 0.001)。相似度百分比分析(SIMPER)结果表明,引起3组差异性的鱼类主要是鲤形目和鲇形目鱼类,且随着地势阶梯的升高出现了科级、属级类群的替代。近几十年来,随着流域各国内人口的增长和经济的快速发展,澜沧江–湄公河鱼类多样性和渔业资源面临严重威胁,未来需加强流域内国家间合作,在流域尺度上制定科学保护计划已迫在眉睫。

关键词: 澜沧江–湄公河, 淡水鱼类, 种类组成, 分类学多样性

The Lancang-Mekong River is the largest river in Southeast Asia and one of the three largest rivers in the world with the highest biodiversity of freshwater. There is a lack of systematic understanding of the diversity of freshwater fish in the Lancang-Mekong River, because it is an international river and has a special geographical location. Based on the investigation of the past two decades, this paper systematically compiled the list of freshwater fish species in 32 sub-basins or tributaries in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River. On this basis, the species composition and distribution of fish were analyzed, and the species diversity of the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River was evaluated using the taxonomic diversity index. The results showed that 745 species of freshwater fish were recorded in the middle and upper reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River, belonging to 229 genera, 63 families, 17 orders and 2 classes, of which 451 species of Cypriniformes fish accounted for 60.5% of the species. The taxonomic diversity index showed that from the source to the middle reaches, the distribution of freshwater fish in the taxonomic category was more and more even, the relationship is farther and farther, and the fish diversity is gradually increasing. Cluster Analysis (CA) and Multi-Dimensional Scaling Analysis (MDS) results showed that when the Jaccard similarity coefficient was 15.9, the 32 sub-basins could be divided into three groups, and Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that there were significant differences in the composition of freshwater fish between the groups (R=0.903, P=0.001). Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER) indicated that Cypriniformes and Siluriformes were the main fish causing the differences among the three groups, and the species composition presented stage substitution at family level and specie level. In recent decades, with the rapid development of population and economy of the countries in the basin, fish diversity and fishery resources in the Lancang-Mekong River are facing serious threats. In the future, it is urgent to strengthen cooperation among countries in the basin and formulate a scientific protection plan at the basin scale.

Key words: Lancang-Mekong River, freshwater fish, species composition, taxonomic diversity

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