生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1090-1100.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019195

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

澜沧江-湄公河中上游淡水鱼类多样性

李雪晴1, 2, 孙赫英1, 2, 何德奎1, *(), 陈毅峰1   

  1. 1 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-13 接受日期:2019-08-30 出版日期:2019-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 何德奎 E-mail:hedekui@ihb.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    中国科学院东南亚生物多样性中心区域性国际合作基金(Y4ZK111B01);中国科学院先导A类先导专项(XDA20050203)

Freshwater fish diversity in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River

Li Xueqing1, 2, Sun Heying1, 2, He Dekui1, *(), Chen Yifeng1   

  1. 1 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-06-13 Accepted:2019-08-30 Online:2019-10-20
  • Contact: He Dekui E-mail:hedekui@ihb.ac.cn

澜沧江-湄公河是东南亚最大的河流, 也是世界上淡水生物多样性最高的三大河流之一。由于特殊的地理位置和国际河流属性, 澜沧江-湄公河淡水鱼类的多样性现状仍缺乏系统的认识。本文在近20年调查的基础上, 系统整理了澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个支流或亚流域的淡水鱼类物种名录, 在此基础上对其种类组成和分布进行了分析, 并利用分类学多样性指数对澜沧江-湄公河中上游流域的物种多样性进行了评估。结果表明, 澜沧江-湄公河中上游共记录了淡水鱼类745种, 分属于2纲17目63科229属, 其中鲤形目鱼类451种, 占物种数的60.5%。分类学多样性指数显示, 从源头到中游, 淡水鱼类在分类阶元上的分布越来越均匀, 亲缘关系越来越远, 分类多样性越来越高。聚类分析(cluster analysis, CA)和多维尺度分析(multi-dimensional scaling, MDS)表明, 当Jaccard相似性系数为8.69时, 澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个亚流域可以分为源区、上游和中游3组; 相似性分析(ANOSIM)结果显示, 各组之间淡水鱼类组成差异显著(R = 0.877, P = 0.001)。相似性百分比分析(similarity percentage analysis, SIMPER)结果表明, 导致3组差异性的鱼类主要是鲤形目和鲇形目鱼类, 且随着地势阶梯的升高出现了科级、属级类群的替代。近几十年来, 随着流域各国人口的增长和经济的快速发展, 澜沧江-湄公河鱼类多样性和渔业资源面临严重威胁, 未来需加强流域内国家间合作, 在流域尺度上制定科学保护计划。

关键词: 澜沧江-湄公河, 淡水鱼类, 种类组成, 分类学多样性

The Lancang-Mekong River is the longest river in Southeast Asia, and is one of the richest areas of freshwater biodiversity in the world. Because it is an international river through six countries and holds extremely high fish biodiversity, there is a lack of systematic understanding of freshwater fish diversity. Over the past two decades, this team systematically compiled a list of freshwater fish species in 32 sub-basins or tributaries in the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River. Now in this paper, the species composition and distribution of fish have been analyzed, and the species diversity of the upper and middle reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River has been evaluated using the taxonomic diversity index. The results showed that 745 species of freshwater fish were recorded in the middle and upper reaches of the Lancang-Mekong River. These fish belong to 229 genera, 63 families, 17 orders and 2 classes. Of these, 451 species of Cypriniformes fish accounted for 60.5% of the species. The taxonomic diversity index showed that, from the source to the middle reaches of the river, the taxonomic distribution of freshwater fish became increasingly more even, the relationships were increasingly further apart, and the fish diversity gradually increased. Cluster analysis (CA) and multi-dimensional scaling analysis (MDS) results showed that the 32 sub-basins could be divided into three groups (Jaccard similarity coefficient=8.69), and the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated that the composition of freshwater fish differed significantly between the groups (R = 0.877, P = 0.001). Similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) results indicated that Cypriniformes and Siluriformes were the main fish that differed among the three groups, and the species composition of groups presented distinctive changes at the family and species levels with the altitude rising. With the rapid population growth and economic development of the countries in the river basin in recent decades, the fish diversity and fishery resources of the Lancang-Mekong River face serious threats. Thus, it is urgent that countries in the river basin cooperate and formulate a scientific protection plan at the basin scale.

Key words: Lancang-Mekong River, freshwater fish, species composition, taxonomic diversity

图1

澜沧江-湄公河中上游流域、地理单元(亚流域或支流)以及调查样点分布图。亚流域划分: ZQ: 扎曲; SQ: 色曲; AD: 阿东河; YC: 永春河; TD: 通甸河; EH: 洱海; BJ: 沘江; HH: 黑惠江; LZ: 罗闸河; MG: 勐嘎河; XH: 小黑河; WY: 威远江; HR: 黑河; BY: 补远江; LS: 流沙河; NL: 南腊河; DZ: 大中河; MK-1: 中老边界-博胶; MK-2: 博胶-琅勃拉邦南乌江口; NO: 南乌江; NK: 南康河; NN: 南俄河; MK-3: 琅勃拉邦南乌江口-万象南俄河口; NNP: 南涅河; NC: 南卡丁河; SG: 颂堪河; CHI: 锡河; MUN:蒙河; SBF: 色邦非河; SBH: 色邦亨河; SK: 塞公河; MK-4: 颂堪河口-老挝与柬埔寨边界。"

表1

澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个亚流域平均分类差异指数(Δ+)和分类差异变异指数(Λ+) (河流代号见图1)。"

亚流域
Sub-basin
物种数
Species number
平均分类差异指数
Average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+)
分类差异变异指数
Variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+)
亚流域
Sub-basin
物种数
Species number
平均分类差异指数
Average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+)
分类差异变异指数
variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+)
ZQ 17 60.88 434.52 NL 116 65.78 221.76
SQ 24 61.45 348.62 MK-1 240 68.52 233.13
AD 10 60.89 550.32 MK-2 99 67.47 232.44
YC 21 63.05 379.28 NO 105 65.64 247.45
TD 26 62.95 370.35 NK 85 67.68 227.93
BJ 54 64.72 261.12 MK-3 223 70.52 223.58
HH 39 66.37 256.32 NN 157 67.92 224.96
EH 23 56.92 396.82 NNP 123 69.65 220.26
LZ 49 65.92 218.71 NC 104 69.47 226.98
XH 62 65.67 221.7 SG 70 72.31 182.76
MG 10 66.22 210.17 CHI 170 71.55 185.59
WY 32 67.06 242.95 MUN 294 71.68 198.2
HR 23 64.19 331.85 SBF 72 68.46 237.22
DZ 11 60.73 406.74 SBH 157 69.83 216.84
BY 100 66.5 247.27 SK 94 65.67 244.18
LS 109 66.14 226.43 MK-4 379 71.45 195.07

图2

澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个亚流域平均分类差异指数(Δ+)和分类差异变异指数(Λ+)的95%的置信区间漏斗图(河流代号同图1)。"

图3

基于Jaccard相似性矩阵和组平均聚类法构建的澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个亚流域淡水鱼类聚类树状图(河流代号见图1)"

图4

基于Jaccard相似性矩阵的澜沧江-湄公河中上游32个亚流域淡水鱼类组成的多维尺度分析(MDS)排序图(河流代号见图1)"

表2

澜沧江-湄公河中上游3个生物地理区淡水鱼类组成相似的主要属及其贡献率"

关键属
Key genus
源区和上游
Headwaters & upper reach
上游和中游
Upper reach & middle reach
源区和中游
Headwaters & middle reach
高鲮属 Altigena 2.47 - -
纹胸鮡属 Glyptothorax 7.62 2.37 2.15
半鲿属 Hemibagrus - 1.9 -
间吸鳅属 Hemimyzon 2.4 - -
长臀鲃属 Mystacoleucus - 1.97 2.15
鳠属 Mystus - 1.95 2.07
纹唇鱼属 Osteochilus - 1.83 1.97
无齿??属 Pangasianodon - 1.8 -
单孔鲀属 Pao - 1.83 1.99
鮡属 Pareuchiloglanis 3.11 - -
吻孔鲃属 Poropuntius 2.97 2.39 2.02
褶鮡属 Pseudecheneis 3.23 - -
波鱼属 Rasbora - 3.17 3.1
南鳅属 Schistura 2.83 3.92 2.79
裂腹鱼属 Schizothorax 6.25 - 2.61
结鱼属 Tor 2.68 - -
高原鳅属 Triplophysa 6.18 - 2.27

表3

河源、上游和中游鱼类组成相似性的主要属及其贡献率"

目 Order 科 Family 属 Genus 贡献率 Contribution (%)
源区 Headwaters 鲤形目 Cypriniformes 鲤科 Cyprinidae 裂腹鱼属 Schizothorax 34.43
叶须鱼属 Ptychobarbus 2.04
裸裂尻鱼属 Schizopygopsis 2.04
条鳅科 Nemacheilidae 高原鳅属 Triplophysa 16.11
荷马条鳅属 Homatula 2.13
爬鳅科 Balitoridae 拟平鳅属 Pseudohomaloptera 2.13
鲇形目 Siluriformes
鮡科 Sisoridae 纹胸鮡属 Glyptothorax 9.86
鮡属 Pareuchiloglanis 7.95
褶鮡属 Pseudecheneis 6.74
异鮡属 Creteuchiloglanis 4.61
上游
Upper reach
鲤形目 Cypriniformes 鲤科 Cyprinidae 吻孔鲃属 Poropuntius 7.07
舟齿鱼属 Scaphiodonichthys 4.7
结鱼属 Torg 4.13
高鲮属 Altigena 3.42
墨头鱼属 Garra 3.4
东坡墨鱼属 Ageneiogarra 3.01
条鳅科 Nemacheilidae 南鳅属 Schistura 3.91
鲇形目 Siluriformes
鮡科 Sisoridae 纹胸鮡属 Glyptothorax 8.86
褶鮡属 Pseudecheneis 4.1
锡伯鲶科 Ailiidae 鲱鲶属 Clupisoma 2.98
中游
Middle reach
鲤形目 Cypriniformes 鲤科 Cyprinidae 长臀鲃属 Mystacoleucus 4
圆唇鱼属 Cyclocheilichthys 2.66
裂峡鲃属 Hampala 2.48
纹唇鱼属 Osteochilus 2.7
鱼丹科 Danionidae 波鱼属 Rasbora 3.91
真马口波鱼属 Opsarius 3.74
鲈形目 Perciformes 鳢科 Channidae 鳢属 Channa 3.36
合鳃目 Synbranchiformes 刺鳅科 Mastacembelidae 刺鳅属 Mastacembelus 2.3
鲇形目 Siluriformes 鲿科 Bagridae 鳠属 Mystus 2.28
鲀形目 Tetraodontiformes 鲀科 Tetraodontidae 单孔鲀属 Pao 2.22
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