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秤锤树属与长果安息香属植物的地理分布及其濒危现状

姚小洪1, 2, 叶其刚1, 康明1, 黄宏文1*   

  1. 1 (中国科学院武汉植物园, 武汉 430074)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2005-03-09 修回日期:2005-06-24 出版日期:2005-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄宏文

Geographic distribution and current status of the endangered genera Sinojackia and Changiostyrax

Xiaohong Yao 1, 2, Qigang Ye 1, Ming Kang 1, Hongwen Huang 1*   

  1. 1 Wuhan Botanical Garden/Wuhan Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2005-03-09 Revised:2005-06-24 Online:2005-07-20
  • Contact: Hongwen Huang

秤锤树属(Sinojackia Hu)和长果安息香属(Changiostyrax C.T.Chen)是安息香科的少种属, 这两属在我国共记录有7个种。本文通过野外调查, 分析了中国这两属植物的地理分布、濒危现状及其迁地保护状况。结果表明: 秤锤树属植物地理分布较广, 但是每个物种的居群数量和居群大小均很小。其中秤锤树(Sinojackia xylocarpa)和狭果秤锤树(S. rehderiana)已经在其模式标本产地灭绝; 棱果秤锤树(S. henryi)在过去的近70年内没有采到过标本, 该物种可能存在同物异名现象或已经灭绝; 细果秤锤树(S. microcarpa)由于人为破坏严重,居群大小急剧下降; 肉果秤锤树(S. sarcocarpa)和怀化秤锤树(S. oblongicarpa)呈零星分布且个体数量很少, 处于极濒危状态。另外本次调查发现秤锤树属的一个新的分类群(待鉴定种)。秤锤树属的大多数种和长果安息香属植物的居群更新能力差:虽然结果率较高, 但是结籽率较低; 坚硬的内果皮阻碍了种子的萌发, 这是其居群更新的最大障碍; 另外人为破坏对其居群更新的影响也较大。作者建议应该把秤锤树属的所有物种和长果安息香属植物都纳入保护的范围并讨论了这两属植物的保护策略。

The genera Sinojackia and Changiostyrax (Styracaceae) including only seven species native to China are currently in the endangered status due to intensive human disturbances. We conducted an extensive field survey of their current native geographic distributions, and in situ and ex situ conservation status of the remnant populations. The results showed that in spite of a wide range of natural distribution of Sinojackia, most species in the genus maintained a small number of populations with very small population size, appar-ently resulting from habitat degradation and population losses. S. xylocarpa and S. rehderiana were extinct in Jiangshu Province where the type specimen was collected. During the survey, S. xylocarpa was rarely found in Shangcheng and Xinxian counties of Henan Province, and Guangshui and Changyang counties of Hubei Province. In addition, S.rehderiana was aslo extinct in the type specimen site in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province. In past nearly 70 years, neither wild populations nor individuals of S. henryi were found since the type specimen was first identified in 1937, suggesting this species may be either a synonym mixed with other Sinojackia species or extinct in the wild. The populations of S. microcarpa were reduced rapidly in wild be-cause of anthropogenic destruction and only two sizeable populations were located in Zhejiang Province. S. sarcocarpa and S. oblongicarpa had only one population survived in Leshan and Huaihua, respectively, which suggested critically endangered in wild. A possible new taxon was found during the field survey andneeds for further taxonomic identification. Most species investigated had small number of populations and low seedling recruitment within each population because of low rate of seed germination. The deforestation by local residents had great impact on the survival of Sinojackia and Changiostyrax. Therefore, an integrat-ing conservation strategy should be urgently carried out and current in situ and ex situ conservation be rigidly forced in order to conserve the two endangered genera. We also suggest that all seven species should be in-cluded in the national endangered species list.

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